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Steroid Hormones

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cholesterol
All steroid hormones are derived from...
vitamin D
All steroid hormones contain the same cyclopentanophenanthrene ring, with the exception of...
cylcopentanophenanthrene
All steroid hormones, except for vitamin D, contain a ______ ring.
cholesterol
an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
pregnenolone
6 carbons are cleaved from C27 cholesterol (in a RATE-LIMITING step) to yield C21, which is called...
pregnanes
Steroids with 21 carbon atoms are called...
pregnenolone
Most of the important mammalian steroid hormones are made from a precursor called...
androstanes
Steroids with 19 carbon atoms are called...
estranes
Steroids with 18 carbon atoms are called...
vitamin D
with the exception of ________, all steroid hormones contain the same cyclopentanophenanthrene ring and atomic numbering system as cholesterol.
testosterone
Name this molecule.
progesterone
Name this molecule.
pregnenolone
Name this molecule.
estradiol
Name this molecule.
cortisol
Name this molecule.
aldosterone
Name this molecule.
vitamin A
The precursor for the steroid hormone retinoic acid is...
cholesterol
The precursor for the steroid hormone vitamin D is...
intracellular
All the steroid hormones exert their action by passing through the plasma membrane and binding to ________ receptors.
inside
Do steroid hormones act on receptors INSIDE the cell or OUTSIDE the cell?
false
True or false: steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface.
true
True or false: steroid hormones pass through the plasma membranes of target cells.
thyroid
______ hormones are similar to steroid hormones; both types have receptor complexes that exert their action by binding to specific nucleotide sequences in the DNA of responsive genes
hormone response elements
The specific nucleotide sequences in DNA that thyroid and steroid hormone-receptor complexes bind to are called...
HRE
Acronym for hormone response element.
transcription
Thyroid and steroid hormone-receptor complexes bind the DNA and cause changes in the rate of _______ for associated genes.
progesterone
Like testosterone, _______ synthesis is stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
testosterone
Like progesterone, _______ synthesis is stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Luteinizing
The synthesis of both progesterone and testosterone is stimulated by ________ hormone.
Luteinizing
The biosynthesis of progesterone is stimulated by ___________ hormone.
LH
What is the acronym of the hormone that stimulates the synthesis of testosterone?
adrenocorticotropic
The synthesis of cortisol is stimulated by ________ hormone.
ACTH
What is the acronym of the hormone that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol?
follicle stimulating
The synthesis of estradiol is stimulated by ________ hormone.
FSH
What is the acronym of the hormone that stimulates the synthesis of estradiol?
estradiol
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates the synthesis of ________.
aldosterone
Angiotensin II/III stimulate the synthesis of ________.
angiotensin II/III
The synthesis of aldosterone is stimulated by ________.
committing
The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal _________, regulated, and rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis.
regulated
The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal committing, __________, and rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis.
rate-limiting
The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal committing, regulated, and __________ step in steroid biosynthesis.
biosynthesis
The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal committing, regulated, and rate-limiting step in steroid _____________.
cholesterol desmolase
The enzyme responsible for C6 cleavage has three names, which are:

P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc)

20,22-desmolase

And ____________.
20,22-desmolase
The enzyme responsible for C6 cleavage has three names, which are:

P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc)

cholesterol desmolase

And ____________.
P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc)
The enzyme responsible for C6 cleavage has three names, which are:

cholesterol desmolase

20,22-desmolase

And ____________.
mitochondria
P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc) is found in the __________ of steroid-producing cells.
androgens
The adrenal cortex is responsible for production of 3 major classes of steroid hormones:

glucocorticoids

mineralocorticoids

and....
mineralocorticoids
The adrenal cortex is responsible for production of 3 major classes of steroid hormones:

glucocorticoids

androgens

and....
glucocorticoids
The adrenal cortex is responsible for production of 3 major classes of steroid hormones:

mineralocorticoids

androgens

and....
mineralocorticoids
________ are a class of steroid hormone that regulate the body levels of sodium and potassium.
glucocorticoids
_________ are a class of steroid hormone that regulate carbohydrate metabolism
androgens
____________ are a class of steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex whose actions are similar to that of steroids produced by the male gonads
adrenal cortex
glucoocorticoids are produced in the...
adrenal cortex
mineralocorticoids are produced in the...
adrenal cortex
androgens are produced in the...
Addison
Adrenal insufficiency is known as _______ disease.
adrenal
Addison disease is a result of ________ insufficiency.
zona reticularis
The adrenal cortex is composed of 3 main tissue regions:

zona glomerulosa

zona fasciculata

and...
zona fasciculata
The adrenal cortex is composed of 3 main tissue regions:

zona glomerulosa

zona reticularis

and...
zona glomerulosa
The adrenal cortex is composed of 3 main tissue regions:

zona fasciculata

zona reticularis

and...
cytochrome P450
Many of the enzymes of adrenal steroid hormone synthesis are of the class called ________ _______ enzymes
CYP
The standardized nomenclature for the P450 class of enzymes is to use the abbreviation _______.
CYP11A1
In standardized nomenclature, cytochrome P450ssc would be called...
pregnenolone
In order for cholesterol to be converted to ___________ in the adrenal cortex it must be transported into the mitochondria where CYP11A1 resides.
mitochondria
In order for cholesterol to be converted to pregnenolone in the adrenal cortex it must be transported into the ___________ where CYP11A1 resides.
steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)
In the adrenal cortex, the transport of cholesterol into mitochondria is mediated by...
rate-limiting
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports cholesterol into mitochondria. This is important because it is the ________ step in steroidogenesis.
transports
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) _________ cholesterol into mitochondria.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
_____________, of the hypothalamus, regulates the hormone production of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.
zona glomerulosa
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), of the hypothalamus, regulates the hormone production of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, but NOT that of the _________.
false
True or false: hormone production in the zona glomerulosa is regulated by Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH).
true
True or false: hormone production in the zona fasciculata is regulated by Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH).
true
True or false: hormone production in the zona reticularis is regulated by Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH).
liver
Angiotensinogen is derived by the _____.
kidneys
Renin is an enzyme produced by the ________.
renin
Angiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensins I and II by the enzyme _______.
Angiotensins II/III
Hormone production in the zona glomerulosa is regulated by...
aldosterone
If you increased levels of Angiotensins II/III, the end result in the adrenal cortex would be increased levels of the hormone _________.