McGee Muslim Empires and Asia Test
Terms in this set (43)
the part of a muslim household reserved for wives, concubines, and female servants
a muslim sovereign
the greatest advisor of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire with absolute power of attorney
structure within the Ottoman Empire embracing both secular and religious beliefs
religious leaders with secular influence who are appreciated by the sultan
Suleiman the Magnificent
1520: At 26, became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Ruled for 46 years and known for his conquests
Where did Suleiman the Magnificent conquer? Where did he fail?
Conquered then burned Budapest in 1526. In 1529, attempted to attack Vienna but failed. Took control of North Africa and Hungary then expanded east into Persia and south into Mesopotamia.
Who was Suleiman the Magnificent allied with?
Allied with French against Hapsburgs (controlled the Holy Roman Empire) and Charles V
How was Suleiman the Magnificent known as lawgiver among his own people?
Known by Turks as Suleiman the Lawgiver because he strengthened the 2 foundations of the empire: the church (the ulama) and the state (the system of sultan, slaves, court officials, and janissaries)
disciplined Ottoman soldiers who impressed Busbeq (Holy Roman Empire ambassador)
Hapsburg who wrote letters about his travels in the Muslim world-- was very impressed by the Janissaries
What were the strengths of the Ottoman Empire?
Religious toleration of christians, sophisticated literature and education, and language
What were the weaknesses of the Ottoman Empire?
Power fluctuated with rulers, deteriorating conditions for artisans as a result of competition with the West, weak and obsolete military force
geographic boundaries of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire's boundaries were: in Europe as far north as Hungary and part of southern Russia; Iran; the Palestinian coastline; Egypt; and North Africa
Founder of the Safavid Empire who claimed to be a descendant of Muhammed
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; cultural highpoint of Persia
Militant theological philosophy found in the Safavid Empire; The branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed
Ruler of the Safavid Empire in Persia who appointed foreigners to high positions of power within the government, moved capital to Isfahan, economy thrived, he proved inept as a ruler and the dynasty ended soon
Who was Abbas I aided by in his conflict with the Ottoman Empire?
European opponents of the Ottomans
1530: established the Mughal Empire in India
Grandson of Babur; "the most distinguished statesman India has ever produced"; Ruled the Mughal Empire from 1556-1605 and expanded it into most of the Indian subcontinent. He created a central government, reorganized the bureaucracy, and practiced religious and social toleration
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent when he moved it to stricter Islam, only to collapse after his death
In Thomas Friedman's article on India, how does he describe the current state of the country?
India embodies a country in which a secular democracy thrives; Indian muslims and Hindus live in peace and the democracy "forces anyone who wants to succeed nationally to appeal across ethnic lines"
How does Friedman describe the ongoing situation in Iran?
Iran struggles to find the balance that India possesses between state and religion. The Iranian government is part democracy and part Islamic theocracy
1368-1644: initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within China; restored civil service exam.
How did the position of emperor change in Ming-Qing times?
The emperor was stronger than ever after the pattern of personal government by emperors was reestablished
How did the bureaucracy expand during the Ming Dynasty?
The Ming government was forced to expand in order to control the expansive population at the time; taxes were raised to better finance the larger government
What were the civil service entrance exams based upon during the Ming Dynasty?
Instead of being completely based on birth and succession, the Ming Dynasty civil service positions were based solely on exam scores about a narrow curriculum of Confucius
People from Manchuria that came down and took over the Ming dynasty after it had fell. they started the Qing dynasty. Tried to keep themselves ethnically separate from the chinese.
What role did the Manchus play in the Qing Dynasty?
The Manchus brought forth foreign ideas
Built in the Ming Dynasty, all commoners and foreigners were forbidden to enter without special permission
castrated males, originally in charge of protection of the ruler's concubines. Eventually had major roles in government, especially in China
In China, the class of prosperous families, next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel
What was one institution that the Manchus adopted to maintain themselves as an ethnically separate elite group?
Their military organization
Was the first to attempt to unify Japan at the end ofthe warring states period, whose ultimate goal was to bring the country under a "single sword". His tactic involved sheer brute force; rose to power from an obscure peasant
Who did Oda Nobunaga despise? Who did he welcome?
Viewed Buddhist monks as a threat to stability, destroyed buddhist temples of Mt. Hiel and slaughtered thousands of monks. Eagerly embraces westerners especially Jesuit missionaries
Rose to become complete master of Japan by 1590; attempted to unify the country by concentrating on the arts of peace and administration; no one but samurai could carry weapons; when Hideyoshi died, personal loyalties died with him
Completed the final unification of Japan; best known for the Shogunate;
Under which ruler did the final unification of Japan occur under?
Period of the Warring States
a time when China was in constant war between its city states, occurring right after the fall Zhou dynasty and not ending until the formation of the Qin dynasty
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
What programs were implemented under the Tokugawa Shogunate?
Disarmed all peasants; persecution of Christians in Japan; extensive trade contacts with Europeans and Chinese are severed; building of oceangoing ships is forbidden, no foreigners in, no people out; merchants above samurai; heavy taxes; civil bureaucracy
Why did the samurai experience economic problems under the Tokugawa Shogunate?
Samurais are thrown into debt as they rely heavily on merchants for money. This exchange places the merchants above the samurai and gives them all the economic power