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Exam 2 - DCUSH - copy
Terms in this set (61)
What is Social Darwinism?
The theory that human groups and races are subject to the same laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin had perceived in plants and animals in nature.
What is the Gospel of Wealth? Who wrote the Gospel of Wealth?
An article written by Andrew Carnegie in June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
What is the Social Gospel?
A movement led by a group of liberal Protestant progressives in response to the social problems raised by the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and increasing immigration of the Gilded Age.
Explain Lochner v. New York?
A landmark US labor law case in the US Supreme Court, holding that limits to working time violated the Fourteenth Amendment. Ruled that the government cannot interfere with the work schedule.
Who is Booker T. Washington and what are his beliefs?
A black educator of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He also had a major influence on southern race relations and was the dominant figure in black public affairs.
How did Progressives limit democracy?
Some reformers fought for the right of women to vote, other reformers passed laws limiting the voting rights of others.
How could new types of machinery negatively impact industry?
People lost their jobs to machines
What is the Haymarket Riot? What was the outcome?
Rally at Haymarket Square was organized by labor radicals to protest the killing and wounding of several workers by the Chicago police during a strike the day before at the McCormick Reaper Works. At least eight people died as a result of the violence that day. Despite a lack of evidence against them, eight radical labor activists were convicted for the bombing.
Economic concerns during the Gilded Age?
The Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West. As American wages were much higher than those in Europe, especially for skilled workers, the period saw an influx of millions of European immigrants. The rapid expansion of industrialization led to real wage growth of 60% between 1860 and 1890, spread across the ever-increasing labor force
Explain Labor unrests and the relationship with management.
Many people were scared to unionize because managers would take away jobs or make them work longer hours.
Populists were dedicated to:
Improving conditions for farmers and agrarian workers
Controversies during the Gilded Age
Tariffs, Currency, Expansion of trusts (Corporation expansion)
What is Nativism?
The policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants
What is Philanthropy?
The desire to promote the welfare of others, expressed especially by the generous donation of money to good causes
Who is Ida Well Barnett and what were her beliefs?
An African American helped the NAACP, against Suffragist-Lynching
Who is Jacob Riis? What did he do?
Jacob August Riis was a Danish-American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He photographed people that were suffering and showed it to wealth peoples.
What are Labor Unions? What were there effects during the Gilded Age and Progressive Eras?
An organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests.
What was the 19th Amendment?
The right of citizens to vote "shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
What is the initiative process?
Citizens draft a legislative bill or constitutional amendment (a "measure"), which they then propose by petition; if the petition receives sufficient popular support, the measure is then placed on the ballot and can be enacted into law by a direct vote of citizens.
The growth of industry contributed to what?
Diseases and overcrowding of cities. Mass production of products
What did Progressive reforms do to help workers?
Create labor unions
What was the goal of labor unions?
Job security and wages
Were Labor Unions successful in the 1900s? Were they accepted?
Yes, they are going to struggle to gain public acceptance, but they will be accepted more and more.
What is a Monopoly?
The exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service
What is a Trust
Confidence placed in a person by making that person the nominal owner of property to be held or used for the benefit of one or more others
What did the industrial unions of the 1880s and 1980's have in common?
They fought for better wages and working conditions
What is trust busting?
Government activities aimed at breaking up monopolies and trusts
What is popular sovereignty?
sovereignty of the peoples' rule
What was Upton Sinclair's book The Jungle about?
Exposed harsh treatment of immigrants and appalling working conditions in the meat packing industry
What is the "Great Migration?
the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
What is the Niagara Movement? What does it lead too?
a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter.
The Populist movement did what?
Politically oriented coalition of agrarian reformers in the Middle West and South that advocated a wide range of economic and political legislation in the late 19th century.
What was the Sierra Club?
An environmental organization
What was the Pullman Strike?
Railroad strike and boycott that severely disrupted rail traffic in the Midwest of the United States
What policies led to economic growth and monopolies because the government did not intervene in the economy?
What type of economy is characterized by business competition, entrepreneurship, and minimal regulations from the government?
What type of big business dominates an industry by eliminating competition?
What law intended to protect consumers and increase competition by breaking up monopolies?
Sherman Anti Trust Act
What term refers to business leaders who used aggressive and unfair methods to gain their wealth?
What term describes the workers with little training who operated machines and replaced artisans during industrialization?
What are two examples of poor treatment of workers by business leaders?
unsafe conditions and low wages
What strategy did John Rockefeller use when he formed a trust by taking over all his competitors in the oil industry?
What strategy did Andrew Carnegie use by controlling all parts of steel production, including coal mining steel factories, and shipping?
What are three causes of industrialization in the Gilded Age?
Government support of business and industry, High population, Available natural resources
What new technology led to a longer workday and easier production in factories?
What mass production method did Andrew Carnegie use to lower the cost of steel?
What idea was used to justify the growth of big business by arguing that the wealthy have natural skills and talents that allows them to survive?
What time period is characterized by government support for big business and wealth and corruption among business and political leaders?
What is reflected by the Carnegie Library and Rockefeller Foundation?
In what essay did Andrew Carnegie argue that the wealthy should support activities that benefit the community through education, such as donating money to libraries and universities?
Gospel of wealth
What mainly attracted people to urban areas during the Gilded Age?
What are three problems caused by urbanization in the Gilded Age?
Crime Disease Overcrowding
What overcrowded slums were the only housing options available for underpaid workers in the city?
What organizations were corrupt because they accepted bribes, stole money from cities, and manipulated elections?
What organizations provided city services and helped immigrants find housing and employment in the cities?
Who provided businesses with cheap labor during industrialization?
What economic pull factor attracted New Immigrants to the United States?
What term refers to reasons people leave their homeland to come to the United States, such as famine, war, and unemployment?
What process is reflected when immigrants assimilate into American society by changing their names and learning English?
What term refers to people who were against immigration?
What law was the result of job competition and anti-immigration sentiment in California?
Chinese exclusion act