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An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas.

Middle Passage

the part of the Atlantic Ocean between the west coast of Africa and the West Indies: the longest part of the journey formerly made by slave ships.

Royal African Company

A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.

slave codes

early 18th century law limited the rights of Blacks, gave almost absolute authority to white masters, color was the only factor in determining if someone subject to these.


Scottish Presbyterians who had settled in northern Ireland in the early 17th century. Many embarked for America after landlords tripled their rents.

Eliza Lucas

Antiguian woman, experimented with cultivating indigo on the mainland, grew where rice wouldn't and harvested when the rice was still growing

Saugus Mills

where an ironworks was established after iron ore deposits had been discovered in the region. The Saugus mill used water power to control the heat in a charcoal furnace

Peter Hasenclever

controlled largest metal industrial enterprise in English North America, located in New Jersey, suffered from inadequate labor supply, small domestic market, and energy supply; German ironmaster in N. NJ, started the largest industrial enterprise in English North America

triangular trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

Merchant class

group of adventurous entrepreneurs who by the mid 18th century began to form a distinct class. They had protection from foreign competition, created markets with other countries.


becoming gentlemanly or ladylike in speech and behavior; they strove to develop themselves as witty and educated conversatioonalists

Charles of Carrollton

reputedly the wealthiest man in the colonies; his plantation covered 40,000 acres and contained 285 slaves.

great house

the house of the planter


language developed by African workers so white masters could not understand them, hybrid of English and African, culturally a connection to Africa

town meeting

meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues.

visible saints

Puritans only let these become members of the church if they could outwardly show that they had an encounter with God.


a system in which all land passes to the eldest son

Salem, Massachusetts

where the most famous outbreak of witch trials occured. 19 people were killed here, and the original accusers later admitted they made it up

George Whitefield

succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America, journey to colonies sparked Great Awakening

Jonathan Edwards

The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.

New Lights

revivalists, denounced book learning as a hindrance to salvation

dame schools

private schools run by women in their own homes

Cotton Mather

Puritan theologian , believed that disease was punishment from God, but pushed the idea of inoculation (infecting with mild cases of disease to protect )

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.

Old Light


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