Psychology - Learning & Memory
Terms in this set (50)
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers a response.
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
learning by observing others (also called social learning).
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
This works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future.Adding something to decrease the behavior.
taking away a certain desired item after the undesired behavior happens in order to decrease future responses. Subtracting something to decease behavior.
process by which we recall experiences, information, and skills
the first process of memory; the translation of information into a form for future use
second process of memory; makes memories available for future use
third memory process; locates stored information and returns it to conscious thought
repeated repetition of information to help the learning process
first stage of information storage -- the immediate, initial recording of data
sometime called working memory -- when information is stored for 10-12 seconds
memory stored more than briefly and encoded through rehearsal
organization of items into familiar or manageable units
a sentence or acronym that helps us to memorize a string of words.
The memory of facts and experiences
the unconscious and effortless process of encoding information such as space, time, and frequency.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
serial position effect
The tendency to recall the first and last items in a list more easily.
A vivid, clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
The memory of skills and procedures
Retrieval in which you must search for information that you previously stored.
Retrieval in which you must identify items you learned earlier
The process of moving anxiety-producing memories to the unconscious mind. Freud psychoanalytic theory.
focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information. Actively processing new memories.
Sensory ---> Encode--->Short- Term--->Encode--->Long Term.
encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
encoding of sound, especially sound of words
encoding of picture images
neural center in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience
tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current mood
what is learned in one state (while one is high, drunk, or depressed) can more easily be remembered when in same state