d. "When this drug is metabolized, the resulting compound has longer lasting effects."
Flurazepam has a half-life of 2 to 3 hours; however, its metabolite has a long half-life, so giving the drug results in long-lasting effects. Barbiturates, not benzodiazepines, are commonly associated with residual, or hangover, effects. A paradoxical reaction to a sedative would manifest as insomnia, euphoria, and excitation, not drowsiness. Tolerance means that the patient would need increased amounts of a drug to get the desired effects and would not have prolonged effects of the medication.
c. Suspect a possible paradoxical reaction to the clorazepate.
Patients taking benzodiazepines for anxiety sometimes develop paradoxical responses to the drug, which include insomnia, excitation, euphoria, heightened anxiety, and rage. A missed dose would trigger withdrawal symptoms, which would include anxiety, insomnia, sweating, tremors, and dizziness. Because this is a paradoxical reaction to the drug, a longer acting drug would make the symptoms worse. This is not caused by overdose, which would manifest as drowsiness, lethargy, and confusion, so a drug level is not warranted.