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alpha 1 selective agonist
causes vasoconstriction and mydriasis
uses: nasal decongestant, eye surgery


non-selective alpha agonist
causes vasoconstriction and mydriasis
uses: nasal decongestant, eye surgery


alpha 2 selective agonist
inhibits medullary CV center to lower BP
IV: 1st dose idiosyncratic (extrajunctional receptors), remaining doses decrease NE release (presynaptic receptors)
Oral: accumulates in brain, inhibits CV center
WITHDRAWAL: major concern, headache, etc. REBOUND HYPERTENSION


alpha 2 selective prodrug
converted > methyl-dopamine > methyl-NE
inhibits medullay CV center


beta 1 selective agonist, DA analog
causes increased contractility > increase CO
not much effect on HR
uses: cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure


non-specific beta agonist
uses: asthma, bronchospasm

albuterol, pirbuterol, terbutamine

beta 2 specific agonist
short duration
uses: asthma, bronchospasm, also given IV to stop labor

salmeterol, formoterol

beta 2 selective agonists
long duration of action
uses: asthma (in conjunction with steroids)


mimics epinephrine effect, less potent
uses: asthma and myasthenia gravis


mimics epinephrine effect, less potent
uses: nasal decongestant


non-selective alpha antagonist
alpha 1 block: vasodilation of veins and arteries > orthostatic hypotension and decreased BP
alpha 2 block: prevents negative feedback to increase NE release
uses: short-term treatment of HTN in patients with pheochromocytoma


predominant alpha 1 blocker, some alpha 2 antagonism
drop in arterial pressure > reflex increase in CO and HR
increased NE release
increased cutaneous and splanchnic flow
uses: Raynaud's, pheochromocytoma

prazosin (doxazosin, alfuzosin, tamsulosin)

selective alpha 1 blocker
inhibits contraction of smooth muscle > vasodilation
less intense response than non-selectives, no increased NE release
uses: essential hypertension, CHF, UTI associated with BPH
side effects: 1st dose postural hypotension and syncope


selective alpha 1 blocker
uses: hypertension, Raynaud's


selective alpha 2 blocker
causes vasodilation
uses: erectile dysfunction, Raynaud's


non-selective beta antagonist
beta 1 block > decreased contractility and HR > decreased CO
decreased slope of pacemaker potential > prevent reentrant arrhythmias
uses: angina, arrhythmias, hypertension
side effects: bradycardia, bronchospasm, AV block, hypoglycemia


beta 1 antagonist + beta 2 partial agonist
less likely to cause bronchoconstriction and hypoglycemia, because of beta 2 partial agonism


selective beta 1 blocker
decreases CO, antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic
less bronchoconstriction
less hypoglycemia
crosses BBB > depression, fatigue, loss of libido


selective beta 1 blocker
less bronchoconstrictoin
less hypoglycemia
does not enter CNS


selective beta 1 blocker
very short half-life
rapid onset and cessation of beta blockade
used in URGENT setting when immediate onset is needed


beta 1 antagonist + beta 2 partial agonist + alpha 1 antagonist
alpha 1 block > vasodilation
beta 1 block > decreased HR, decreased renin > decreased BP
beta 2 partial agonism > less bronchoconstriction and hypoglycemia
uses: chronic hypertension, hypertensive crisis (IV)


beta 1 antagonist + beta 2 partial agonist + alpha 1 antagonist + antioxidant and antiproliferative properties
uses: congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure


beta 1 antagonist + vasodilatory effects
lowers BP without decreasing left ventricular function
reduces peripheral resistance
vasodilation mediated by NO


inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase > no catecholamine production
uses: pheochromocytoma


rarely used antihypertensive
decreases activity of postganglionic sympathetic neurons
inhibits synaptic vesicle fusion

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