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Filthy 50 vocab words
Terms in this set (85)
factions are inevitable in a free society. Must control them by allowing a large republic to balance out all factions.
checks and balances among the branches will balance out power and protect liberty.
said that the judicial branch is the least formidable
a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
people are the source of political power
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
creates congress, the legislative branch of the government. Spits congress in to a bicameral legislature. The senate- each state gets 2 senators. Then the house of representatives each state gets representatives based of the population, 435 representatives in total.
gives powers to the executive branch and explains how the executive branch is formed.
Federal court can hear and leaves rest to the states. "federal courts can hear all cases "arising under the constitution, the laws of the US and treaties"
Separation of Powers
an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Check and Balances
counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
Federal law takes precedence over state laws, and even state constitutions
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
More power to the states
Requirements that states and local governments to provide additional services under the threat of penalties or as a condition of the the receipt of federal grant money
Electoral College (Federalism)
A body of electors chosen by the voters in each state to elect the President and Vice President of the United States.
a sovereign state governed as a single entity
The vast majority of political power rests with the local governments; the central federal government has very little power.
divides the powers of government between the national (federal) government and state and local governments.
Intergovernmental grants with specific instructions to state and local officials on how the money could be spent.
a grant from a central government that a local authority can allocate to a wide range of services. - gives states and cities more freedom to choose what to spend their money on
Powers given to the state government alone
Government authority shared by national and local governments
- Iowa was the first caucus, and currently the only caucus
-Gatherings in schools, living rooms, basements, etc. where people give speeches about the candidates
Motor Voter Law
a law advancing voter rights by in the United States by requiring state governments to offer voter registration opportunities to any eligible person who applies for or renews a driver's license or applies for public assistance.
the holding of an office or a period during which one is being held.
a primary election in which voters are not required to declare a party affiliation
a primary election limited to only registered party members
a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates.
All expand the right to vote. 15--a person's right to vote cannot be denied by state governments because of their race or a previous condition of servitude, Congress can enforce this through legislation. African Americans still repressed from voting in the south, not until voting/civil rights acts in the 60s does that improve.
gave women the right to vote in 1920, voting population doubles.
gets rid of poll taxes
gives 18 year olds the right to vote, but young people continue to vote in very small numbers
Voting Rights Act of 1965
ban literary tests. Vote examiners, penalties, literacy tests
Election system where not everyone gets a trophy. The person who gets the most votes wins.
Single Member District
An electoral district that sends the officeholder to a body with multiple members in it. Since there is only one member that will end up voting, it is winner takes all.
Baker v. Carr
decided that redistricting issues present justiciable questions which allow federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases.
Electoral College (voting)
There are 538 electors. A 270 majority is required to elect the president. Number of electoral college members a state has is equal to the number of senators and house reps.
Straight-ticket voting or straight-party voting is the practice of voting for every candidate that a political party has on a general election ballot
A formal set of principle goals which are supported by by a political party and/or and individual candidate
A meeting that party members attend to decide policies and choose candidates for office. Represent a particular party ideology
A major shift in a party's electoral base and political agenda, party coalition may split up forming new parties; very rare
a group or clique within a larger group, party, or government -- A type of social movement organization that relies on high levels of membership participation to promote social change
Big Tent Theory
a political party that seeks to attract people with diverse viewpoints and place them under one banner
people who consider themselves in the middle of the political spectrum--most everyday people fall into this category, but party elites try to sway them towards one side or another.
Political Action Committees (PACs)
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
A close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
A network of people who regularly discuss and advocate public policies
The act of attempting to influence business and government leaders to create legislation
A person who chooses to receive the benefits of a common resource without paying for it
The belief that competition among all affected interests shapes public policy
Lobby formed in 1990s made up of mayors, governors, superintendents of schools, state directors of public health, county highway commissioners, local police chiefs, and others who had come to count on federal funds
Necessary and Proper (Elastic Clause)
section of the constitution allowing congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper", allows congress to have powers not specifically stated in cons.
the ability of members to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by substituting their facsimile signature for postage
drawing the boundaries of districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to favor 1 party
legislation gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states to win votes
legislature supports someone's proposal to get that person's support
anything an elected official provides to their constituents
Commerce Clause (Congressional Power)
art 1 sec 8, congress power to 'regulate commerce w/ foreign nations, among states and the Indian Tribes' import enumerated power and limitation to fed gov
the current holder of an elected office
Standing Committee (House Rules & Ways and Means Committees)
a permanent committee that meets regularly; bodies with specific legislative responsibilities; are the only committees that can report to the floor.
A conference committee is a joint committee of the United States Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill.
an action such as a prolonged speech that obstructs progress in a legislative assembly while not technically contravening the required procedures, lack of rule on debate
(in a legislative assembly) a procedure for ending a debate and taking a vote; 60 senators can vote to limit debate to 30 hours.
The presidents use of their prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public
New Deal (Importance in Presidential Power)
The New Deal made the gov more powerful in our daily lives, thus giving the president more power
Chief of State
The most important part of a president's staff who creates the calendar, sets up meetings, and advises the president
the tendency for a candidate to get more votes if they are at the top of a ballot with a well know candidate (the president)
When congressmen, who have many connections in congress, get hired as lobbyists
The Right of executive branch to withhold information from congress
an organization characterized by hierarchal structure, worker specialization, explicit rules, and advancement by merit
a rule passed by the executive branch that carries the force of law, can be unwritten by the succeeding president
a constitutional doctrine that ensures states cannot enact laws that take away the constitutional rights of American citizens that are enshrined in the Bill of Rights
A statement that is prepared by a judge or court announcing the decision after a case is tried; includes a summary of the facts, a recitation of the applicable law and how it relates to the facts, the rationale supporting the decision, and a judgment; Three kinds: Majority, Concurring, and Dissenting
Amicus Curiae (Amicus Brief)
a person or group who is not a party to an action, but has a strong interest in the matter, will petition the court for permission to submit a brief in the action with the intent of influencing the court's decision
The test to determine the ideology of a judge for the SCOTUS
the power of a higher court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts.
Rule of Four
For the Supreme Court to take a case, it needs to have four justices who want to take it
Writ of certiorari
Is issued to the lower court when the higher court (Supreme Court) wants to take a case
they represent US government before SCOTUS
Stare Decisis/Precedent - Stare decisis
"let the decision stand", or allow prior rulings to control the current case; sets the precedent that a court case today should be settled in accordance with prior decisions on similar cases
a convention of a major political party, especially one that nominates a candidate for the presidency
floor leaders are elected by the members of their party in the Senate at the beginning of each Congress. Depending on which party is in power, one serves as majority leader and the other as minority leader. The leaders serve as spokespersons for their party's positions on issues.
Judicial Activism v. Judicial Restraint
judicial activism- ( don't stick to the wording of the constitution)
judicial restraint- (stick to the constitution)
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Our Democracy
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Magruder's American Government (Florida Student Edition)
Daniel M. Shea
Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy
George C. Edwards III, Martin P. Wattenberg, Robert L. Lineberry
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