143 terms

Study Guide for Chapter 3 4 and 5

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Products of respiration
ATP, CO2 and H2O
What tropic level is comprised of autotrophs?
producers (e.g plants)
Formula for net primary productivity
Gross primary productivity - respiration by producers
Gross primary productivity
total amount of solar energy that the producers in an ecosystem capture via photosynthesis over a given amount of time
Percent of energy captured by the sun?
1 percent
which bio-geochemical cycle has no extensive atmospheric components
phosphorus cycle
What do we call it when we capture carbon dioxide released in coal burning and pipe it back underground for storage to avoid contributing to climate change
...
What nitrogen molecule is the true nutrient absorbs and assimilated by plants
NH4 or by lightning NO3
What organisms are most responsible for chemical changes in the atmosphere?
bacteria
watershed
An ecosystem where all water runoff drains into a single body of water
Ecosystem provides us with services, what do we call the services that provide us with goods?
ecosystem services
% of energy that is typically passed to the next tropic level
10%
tropic level
...
layer of the Earth's atmosphere containing mountains and other weather
troposphere
each laters temperature
Troposphere: 20 to -60 degrees (temp declines as altitude increases)

stratosphere: excluding ozone layer it goes from -60 degrees to 0 degrees

mesosphere: 0 degrees to -70 degrees

thermosphere: from -70 degrees to 1,750 degrees

(Celsius)
why is the stratosphere a significant layer for our health on this planet
contains the ozone layer which absorbs UV radiation from the sun and protects us from the UV rays damaging our
most responsible for creation of seasons and unequal heating of our planet
the earth's tilt in axis (23.5 degrees)
albedo
Ability of a surface to reflect light

white = reflect
black = absorb
what type of earth's surface has the highest albedo
snow covered polar regions
is adiabatic heating due to an increase or decrease in air pressure as an air mass sinks?
increase
hurricanes and thunderstorms often develop in the tropics due to an increase in energy from what phenomenon?
...
What is the global circulation cell over the equatorial regions
0 to 30 Hadley Cells
In the southern hemisphere, due to ocean circulation, upwelling typically occurs on the east or west coast of South America
west
What circulation in the oceans reflects concentrations of salt and temperature variation
...
The equatorial pacific ocean experiences changes in global winds periodically, what is caused as a result
El Nino
what biome typically has leaves that fall of in the winter with seasonal temperature changes
...
What is the most biodiverse aquatic system
ocean
The Lincoln Index may be used to measure what ecosystem characteristic
way to measure population sizes of individual animal species
What is a term(s) is used to describe the change of organisms over time in a response to a changing environment
adaptation, evolution, genetic drift
what is mostly responsible on the genetic level for the changes that show up in populations that may successfully cause an evolution of that population.
...
what is it called when populations are isolated and reproduction is prevented so the populations evolve to be different and become new species
geographic isolation
Will the pace of evolution increase or decrease if the population is large
...
The variety of finches in the Galapagos was due to competition for resources when they divided up the resources they lived with their fundamental niche seeking resources only from their _______ niche.
...
What was a major contributor to who scientists have documented changing organisms over past millions of years?
...
Water cycle
Precipitation -> Runoff -> Evaporation -> Transpiration -> Condensation
what does the sun power
evaporation, precipitation and transpiration
Reservoirs
oceans/rivers/lakes, glaciers, groundwater, water vapor atmospheric gas, living organisms (anything that stores, specifically water)
some reasons why water cycle is important
the water cycle is a water purifier for nature
water is a greenhouse gas (stores heat)
water often acts with other solvents
how humans alter the water cycle
overuse

increase pollutants in runoff

reduced infiltration

altering weather (e.g deforestation)
carbon cycle
in the atmosphere as CO2

producers pull the carbon through photosynthesis

consumers take in carbon by eating producers or other consumers

carbon also incorporated into marine and terrestrial sediments and compressed into fossil fuels

reservoirs- calcium carbonate found in the seashells in the ocean, marine sediments form limestone, fossil fuels
importance of carbon
basic building block for lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and carbohydrates (macromolecules)


CO2 maintains earth's temperature
how humans alter carbon cycle
overly burning fossil fuels releasing more CO2 in the environment

cutting trees that release CO2

this warming is leading to global climate change
Nitrogen Cycle
N2 is in the atmosphere but must be fixed by bacteria for the producers (nitrogen fixation)

Animals consume the nitrogen from producers and other consumers

(reservoirs 78%)


(FNAAD, ANPAN)

Fixation ------------->Ammonia


Nitrification--------->Nitrates, Nitrites

Assimilation--------->Proteins


Ammonification----->Ammonia

Denitrification------->Nitrogen Gas
F -> A
N2 is combined with Hydrogen ions to make NH3 or NH4 by bacteria and cyanobacteria they use this ammonia for themselves and exert the rest into soil and water
N -> N
The ammonia not taken up by plants is converted by soil bacteria into nitrate ions NO3
A -> A (Organism Death/Decomposition)
Decomposer bacteria convert detritus material into NH3 and NH4
D -> N (Organism Death/Decomposition)
specialized bacteria in waterlogged soil convert the NH4 and NH3 back into NO3 and then back into N2 to the atmosphere and the cycle continues
importance of having the nitrogen cycle
help with the 4 macromolecules

is a limiting factor for primary productivity
how humans alter the nitrogen cycle
we add nitric oxide (NO) to the atmosphere as we burn fuels at high temperatures like gas from cars or jets which eventually leads to acid deposition or acid rain

deforestation

runoff of fertilizer animal manure contributes to NO3 into large bodies of water

nitrogen washes away from top soil

inorganic fertilizer has doubled the annual release of nitrogen from land
Formula for photosynthesis
6H₂O + 6CO₂ + Light Energy → C₆H₁₂O₆+ 6O₂
cellular respiration
process that unlocks chemical energy stored in the cells of organisms
food chain
the sequence of consumption from producers through tertiary consumers
food web
a complex model of how energy and matter move between trophic levels
gross primary productivity
the total amount of solar energy that plants in an ecosystem capture through photosynthesis and assimilate in a given period
net primary productivity
the energy captured by producers in an ecosystem minus the energy producers respire

GPP - producers respiration
biomass
the total mass of living matter in a specific area

NPP establishes the rate at. which. biomass is produced
standing crop
the amount of biomass present in an ecosystem at a particular time
ecological efficiency
the proportion of consumed energy that can be passed from one trophic level to another (typically 10%)
biosphere
The combination of all ecosystems.
biogeochemical cycles
the movements of matter within and between ecosystems
pools
components that contain matter

(e.g air, water, organisms)
flows
process that moves matter between pools
macronutrients
nutrients required in large amounts

(e.g N,P,K,Ca,Mg,S)
limiting nutrient
a nutrient an organism needs because a lack of it results in constrained growth
rain shadows
windward- percipitation

leeward- higher pressure and more heating
weather
the state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc.

short term
climate
The average weather conditions in a regionover a long period of time
5 layers of the atmosphere
troposphere, - densest, closest to earth, 10 miles above earth, water vapor its here, where weather occurs, gets colder as you increase altitude

stratosphere, - ozone layer that absorbs uv rays

mesosphere, - coldest layer

thermosphere, - hottest layer

exosphere - in the thermosphere
density
less dense = air rises, warm air

e.g it's hotter upstairs than downstairs

more dense = vice versa
pressure
as air rise = pressure decreases more volume space

as air sinks = vice versa
adiabatic cooling
the cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
adiabatic heating
sinking air increases in pressure and decreases in volume, which raises the temperature of the air
latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
ex. rain
saturation point
the maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature
intertropical convergence zone
area of the earth that receives most intense sunlight where the ascending branches of the two hadley cells converge


usually has dense clouds and intense thunderstorm activity

this are is known to be 23.5 degrees N and 23.5 degrees S
polar cells
the convection currents are formed by air that rises at 60 degrees N & S and sink at the poles
1 rotation =
24 hours
Does earth move slower or faster at the equator
faster so it deflects objects that are moving directly north to south (the Coriolis effect)
how many times does the sun directly hit the equator?
twice

March Equinox (20th or 21st)

September Equinox (21st or 22nd)
5 processes that influence earths climate
unequal heating of earth

atmospheric convection currents

the rotation of earth and the corollas effect

Earth's orbit around the sun

circulation of ocean waters
ocean currents
driven by temperature, gravity, prevailing winds, the Coriolis effect, and the location of continents
gyres
large-scale patterns of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere



cold water from polar regions move along the west coast continents

warm water from the tropics move along the east coast of the US
upwelling
upward movement of water towards the surface
thermohaline circulation
the sinking of dense salty water in the North Atlantic drives a deep, cold current that moves slowly around the world

(helps mix waters of all oceans)
T or F: Ocean currents can affect the temperature of nearby land masses
True
North Atlantic water
cold, salty
biomes
a geographic region categorized by a particular combination of avg annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
growing season
a time of year that crops grow

(0 degrees Celsius/ 32 degrees Fahrenheit)
littoral zone
the shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow

most photosynthesis occurs here
limnetic zone
the open water area that is well lit and is dominated by phytoplankton

most plants can't survive here
profundal zone
deepest, coldest area of a large lake with little light and limited biodiversity

sunlight doesn't reach here
benthic zone
the muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean beneath profundal zone
estuaries
areas along the coast where the fresh waters of rivers mix with the salty waters of oceans
species richness
the number of species in a given area, gives approximate sense of biodiversity
species evenness
whether a particular ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or whether all. species in the ecosystem have similar abundance

(does 1 species dominate the rest in an ecosystem)
phylogenies
branching patterns of evolutionary relationships
evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population overtime
microevolution
evolution below the species level

(e.g evolution of a variety of apples)
macroevolution
when genetic changes give rise to a new species or new genetic families or classes
evolution depends on...
genetic diversity
genes
physical locations on chromosomes within each cell of an organism

determines traits of an organism
genotype
complete set of genes by an individual
two processes that create genetic diversity
mutation, recombination
mutation
an occasional mistake in the copying process producing a random change in the genetic code

(environmental factors could be a cause of mutation)
Mutations can ____ an organisms chance at survival
improve, or harm
phenotype
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
recombination
...
ecosystem diversity
variety of habitats, living communities, and ecological processes in the living world
species diversity
The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.
evolution occurs in 3 primary ways
artificial selection

natural selection

by random process
evolution by natural selection
the environment determines which individual will survive as a result the genes that produce those helpful surviving traits are more common to show up in the next generation

(Darwin's theory supports this)
Fitness
ability to survive and reproduce
adaptations
traits that improve an individuals fitness (ability to survive and reproduce)
genetic changes not related to fitness
mutation, genetic drift, bottleneck effects and founder effects
genetic drift
changes in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
(non adaptive)
population bottleneck
drastic reduction in size of population
bottleneck effect
a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size
founder effect
a change in population descending from a small number of colonizing individuals
ways in how evolution creates a new species
geographic isolation

reproductive isolation

allopatric speciation

sympatric speciation
geographic isolation
physical separation of a group of individuals from others of the same species
reproductive isolation
separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
allopatric speciation
The formation of new species in populations that are >geographically isolated< from one another.

(with geographic isolation0
sympatric speciation
occurs when a species evolves into a new species in an area without a geographic barrier (without geographic isolation)
polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes from the usual 2 in a pair
average span of evolution
3 million years
4 factors influencing successful adaptation
rates of environmental change

genetic variation

population size

generation time
rates of environmental change
to survive rapid changes in environment you must evolve quickly
genetic variation
wide variety of phenotypes/more variety of ones species increase likelihood for that species survival
population size
small populations are more likely than larger ones to undergo rapid evolution

large populations have a more likely chance for genetic variation
generation time
species that have become reproductively mature tend to evolve more quickly than species that require a long time to reproduce
artificial sampling
even more rapid way to evolve a species
genetic engineering
process of copying genes from a species with desirable traits and inserting them into another species
range of tolerance
the limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate
fundamental niche
the suite of ideal environmental conditions for a species
Yes or No: Besides fundamental niche there are also biotic factors that limit the location of where a species can live?
Yes
realized niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives

(helps us understand distribution)
distribution
the areas of the earth in which the species live
niche generalist
a species that can live under a wide range of abiotic or biotic conditions
niche specialist
a species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat or to feed on a small group of species
T or F: species that can't adapt will go extinct
True
why organisms go extinct
no favorable environment that is close to migrate to

environmental change is too rapid for an organism to respond
Our current mass extinction (6th)
estimation that 2 to 25% of species will go extinct by 2025 because of habit destruction, over harvesting, climate change and diseases
phylogenetic tree
which species are more related

A branching diagram that shows how organisms are related through evolution
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