Bones and Skeletal Tissue
Terms in this set (65)
Contains no blood vessels and no nerves
Primary cell type located in cavities (lacunae) within matrix
Ground substance and fibers
Dense irregular connective tissue surrounding cartilage
a) Resists outward expansion, when the cartilage is compressed
b) Blood vessels within provide nutrition to cartilage cells
Skeletal Cartilage Types
1) Hyaline cartilage
2) Elastic cartilage
Skeletal Cartilage Basic Structures
Growth of Cartilage
1) Appositional Growth
2) Interstitial Growth
Long axis of the body (skull, vertebral column, rib cage)
1) Upper and lower limbs
2) Shoulder Girdle - scapulas and clavicles
3) Pelvic Girdle - pelvis (ilium, ischium, pubis)
1) Compact - external dense outer layer
2) Spongy - internal honeycomb of trabeculae ("little beams"); bone marrow (red or yellow) - hematopoietic tissue (blood cell production
Typical Long Bone
5) Articular Cartilage
Short, Irregular, and Flat Bone
1) No shafts, no epiphysis, no medullary cavities
2) Outer - thin plates of compact bone with periosteum cover
3) Inner - spongy bone with endosteum cover
4) Diploe - inner spongy bone of flat bones
2) Interstitial Lamellae
3) Circumferential Lamellae
Primary functional unit is the trabeculae
1) Alignment - along lines of stress
2) Structure - irregularly arranged lamellae & osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi
3) Size - few cells thick
Chemical Composition of Bone
Organic components (35%)
Inorganic components (65%)
External surface features of bones
1) Muscle and ligament attachment
2) Form joints
3) Openings for blood vessels and nerves
Osteogenesis (ossification). Bone tissue formation.
Formation of Bony Skeleton Prior to 8 weeks
Skeleton composed entirely from fibrous membranes and hyaline cartilage
Formation of Bony Skeleton - Intramembranous Ossification
Bone formation from a fibrous membrane (within, inside)
a) All bones formed are flat and are called membrane bone
b) Most bones of the skull and the clavicles
Formation of Bony Skeleton - Endochondral Ossification
Bone formation by replacement of hyaline cartilage
1) Growth in length of long bones
2) Growth in width (thickness)
3) Nutritional requirements for bone growth and repair (organic bone component and inorganic crystals)
4) Hormonal regulation of bone growth during youth
Dynamic Properties of Adult Bone
1) Bone recycling
2) Bone replacement
3) Ca2+ functions in body
4) Ca2+ locations in body (bones and blood)
Process of bone deposit and bone resorption
Types of Fractures
Classified by position and orientation of bone and bone fragments
Phases of Repair (Fracture)
1) Hematoma formation
2) Fibrocartilaginous Callus Formation
3) Bony Callus Formation
healing (of bone fracture) primarily by collagen fibers with no stable bone formation
Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone
The region of a long bone between the epiphysis and diaphysis, corresponding to the location of the epiphyseal cartilage of the developing bone.
A connective tissue partition that subdivides an organ; the lattice or mesh work of bony "struts" that make up spongy bone.
1) The cartilage pad that covers the surface of a bone inside a joint cavity.
2) Hyaline cartilage that covers the epiphysis of long bones where they articulate with another bone.
3) Functions as gliding surface for joint motion and absorbs shock
The shaft of a long bone. (Long bones only)
Shaft forming the long axis.
1) Exterior - thick collar of compact bone
2) Interior - medullary cavity (yellow bone marrow in adult)
The cartilaginous region between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a growing bone; also called epiphyseal cartilage. Cartilage-like plate where bone actively grows and lengthens during development.
The tough fibrous external membrane layer that covers/surrounds a bone, consisting of an outer fibrous region and inner cellular region.
1) Outer layer
2) Inner layer
3) Sharpley's Fibers
4) Ligament & Tendons attach to Periosteum
The head of a long bone; proximal and distal ends of long bones.
1) Exterior - compact bone
2) Interior - spongy bone
An incomplete/thin cellular lining on the inner (medullary) surfaces/cavities of bones. Delicate connective tissue membrane.
1) Lines medullary cavities and nutrient foramen of long bones
2) Covers the trabeculae of spongy bones
3) Cells - osteoclasts
The remnant of the growth plate where bone growth stops when all the cartilage in the metaphysis has been replaced by bone. The bony remnant of the epiphyseal plate.
The space within a bone that contains the marrow. Interior open cavity of the diaphysis of long bones.
Components of the Axial Skeleton
Skull, vertebral column,, sternum, ribs, hyoid bone
Components of the Appendicular Skeleton
Pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs
5 Types of Surface Markings on Bones
1) Elevations & Projections
2) Processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach
3) Processes formed for articulation with adjacent bones
Where does spongy bone occur in the skeleton?
Found inside the compact bone envelope.
How are the upper limbs attached to the axial skeleton?
The upper limbs are attached to the scapula at the shoulder joint, by the joint capsule, tendons and ligaments.
Where does growth in length occur in a long bone?
Proximal and distal epiphyseal plates.
The result of an elderly woman's bone density test indicates that her bones are losing mass. What preventative measure can she take to slow her bone loss?
1) Good diet: Protein and vitamin C (for collagen fiber synthesis) and calcium and vitamin D (for ground substance)
2) Regular mild activity to inhibit bone loss and promote bone formation
3) Possible estrogen hormone replacement for its anabolic effects
1) Most common form of cartilage
2) Primary form of fiber is fine collagen
3) Support with flexibility
a. Articular cartilages
b. Costal cartilages
c. Respiratory cartilages - larynx, trachea, larger bronchi
d. Nasal cartilage
Similar to hyaline but contains large numbers of elastic fibers
Locations: a) external ears, b) epiglottis
1) Highly compressible with great strength
2) Large numbers of thick collagen fibers
3) Locations: a) intervertebral disks, b) knee meniscus, c) pubic symphysis
Cartilage cells in perichondrium secrete new matrix
Chondrocytes within matrix divide and secrete new matrix. ("Inter" - "Inner")
1) Longer than width
2) Shaft and two ends
3) Ex: Most bones of limbs
Roughly cube-shaped. Ex: Wrist, ankle bones
Thin, flattened, some curve. Ex: Sternum, scapula, ribs, most skull bones.
Complicated shapes. Ex: Vertebrae and hip bones.
Shaft forming the long axis of a long bone.
1) Secure periosteum to underlying bone
2) Tufts of collagen fibers from fibrous layer down into bone matrix
3) At insertion points, Sharpley's fibers are especially dense
Large supplies of blood and lymph vessels
Large number of nerves. Periosteum is primary source of pain when bone is injured.
Location of Hematopoietic Tissue in Bone
1) Red marrow - contains active hematopoietic (new blood cell formation)
2) Red marrow cavities - any bone cavity that contains red marrow
3) Yellow marrow - largely fat; normally inactive in blood cell formation. Can convert to red marrow if needed for increased red blood cell production.
Medullary cavities and spongy bone filled with red marrow.
Most blood production in:
1) Heads of femur & humerus
2) Diploe of flat bones, especially sternum
3) Some irregular bones such as pelvis
Most medullary cavities and spongy bone is filled with yellow marrow.
Osteon (Havarsian System)
1) Primary source of longitudinal compressive strength
2) Shape - elongated unit of compact bone
3) Function - weight bearing pillars
4) Structure -
a) central canal - artery, vein, nerve fibers
b) lamella - matrix tubes in layers with collagen fibers
c) osteocytes (mature bone cells) - occupy lacuna (small cavities) at junction of lamella; function to maintain matrix; if they die, surrounding matrix reabsorbs.
Incomplete lamellae lying between intact osteons
Resist twisting of bone as a whole.
1) Extend around entire circumference of the bone shaft
2) Located deep to periosteum and superficial to endosteum
Make up 35% of chemical composition of bone