Contemporary Sport Management Test 1
Terms in this set (73)
all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organized participation, aim at expressing or empowering physical fitness and mental well-being , forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition on all levels.
the study and practice of all people, activities, businesses, or organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any sport-related business or product
all encompassing concept
separate activities (i.e., golf, hockey, volleyball)
- ex; NFL games, live or on TV
- soccer balls, youth sport programs
- apparel, sponsorships
Economic impact model
best fit for economic analysis (Figure 1.2)
Sport activity model
focus on actual sport activity, all other elements are viewed in relation to activity
Makes industry more complex, more competitive, more global, and more challenging for managers
ethics and social responsibility
Sport & Events should serve larger social goals in addition to immediate goals (profit, etc.)
Globalization of Sport
The world is becoming more global. How does this affect sport and event managers?
guidelines for making ethical decisions
Recognize an ethical issue
Get the facts
Evaluate alternative actions
Make a decision and test it
Act and reflect on the outcome
this is important when searching for an internship/job
things to focus on: values, interests, skills, personality
formally communicated rules that govern behavior. Ex: rules in a course syllabus or a job handbook
serve as a way to "explain the way things happen in an organization. Unstated or informal rules understood and practiced by members of an organization.
the courses and experiences that you can expect in your undergraduate curriculum and beyond
how to present a professional image, follow the fundamentals of business etiquette, develop ethical and critical thinking skills, and enter the world of work and be comfortable there.
career planning and management
purposeful steps you can take and helpful resources available to you as you contemplate entering the world of work.
Attire and accessories
Examples of negative professional image from social media content?
Voice mail and answering machine messages
Introductions and greetings
Job content skills
specialized knowledge or abilities needed to fulfill a specific job responsibility.
historical aspect of commercialization of sport
Nelson Johnson: Chicago, 1883, tubular skates
The John Gloy Company: Chicago, 1885, gymnastics equipment
Slazenger and Bancroft: came from England in early 1880's, tennis rackets
AG Spalding and Brothers
-one of the first and most successful sporting good firms
-laid the foundation for other sporting good firms
-Diversification of the company
-Experiments in marketing goods and services
-First modern sport business enterprise
A company's expansion by moving forward or backwards within an industry; expansion along a product or service value chain
the act of adding new products to marketing mix
developments leading to the success of AG Spalding
Development of a modern management system
Promotional skills of A.G. Spalding
Managing a Quintessential English Brand
Clean branding strateg
Division into a number of parts that are similar. in sports there is a market for sport participants, sport audiences, and sport equipment purchasers.
ex: Babe Ruth sighing louisville slugger, serena williams and nike, Aaron Rogers and state farm.
Competition and cooperation
the first world war increased the attractiveness of the sporting goods industry. Increased business competition
Increased availability of sporting goods products and outlets.
Increased participation and spectatorship
after WWII this increased
Age of organizations
A period of time, the 1880's and 1890's during which companies began to organize and market sport specific markets (youth).
Events or developments in an industry that cause significant changes throughout the industry
Ex: bicycle craze
Entrants into industry due to the demand for bicycles around 1890's.
Hillerich and Bradsby (H&B)
sporting goods company who signed Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner and Ty Cobb- autograph for Louisville Slugger Bats
Brand Equity and Intercollegiate Athletics
Formula for commercial success in college football
Notre Dame football and the dimensions of brand equity
was created by a winning tradition, arrival of star players who both represented and drew on school's diverse customer base, and establishment of an athletic culture at the university. (Notre Dame)
1973 Battle of the Sexes
Billy Jean King defeated Bobby Riggs in tennis
price cutting, selling below costs, tying contracts, giving hidden rebates, commercial bribery, piracy of trademarks, misbranding of products, etc....
PR Robinson and New York Sporting Goods Company
examples of critical thinking in management history
Social entities that are goal-directed, are designed as deliberately structures and coordinated activity systems, and are linked to external environment.
economies of scale
savings originating from the mass production of goods and services
economies of scope
savings originating from the maximization of the resources used throughout the organization. Number and variety of products and services a company offers.
financial resources, human resources, raw materials, expertise, knowledge
make up federal and state government agencies, responsible for delivery of recreation & sports programs
called volunteer or voluntary organizations, volunteer executives make the decisions
make a profit (Boston Celtics, Wilson, Manchester United)
General Environment Elements
Do fans purchase high-priced tickets for sports events when inflation rates are high?
How does cellphones, computers, Internet help organizations reach consumers
Trade agreement across countries
-Social and cultural forces
Demography; Age structure of population
The extent to which it achieves its goals (focus on results)
The achievement of goals using minimum resources (focus on activities)
lack nuance and acknowledgement of the complexity of the environment in which the organization operates.
1 of 2 contemporary approaches: : combines elements of all traditional effectiveness approaches by focusing on the value dimensions of focus and structure.
Focus: continuum from internal to external
Internal: organization values the well-being of its employees
External: organization values the well-being of the organization
Structure: continuum from stability to flexibility.
-Stable: favor task-oriented approach
-Flexible: favors innovation and change
1 of 2 contemporary approaches: premise that several groups, entities, and other organizations will have an interest in the focal organization.
Various stakeholders will assess organizational effectiveness differently.
formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and use of resources to achieve organizational goals.
process by which leaders "select and manage aspects of structure and culture.
Mintzenberg's proposed designs
all on slide 15 of chapter 4 P.P.
the process of working with and through individuals and groups and other resources to accomplish organizational goals
scientific management approach
it's the responsibility of the manager to increase the worker's output. invented by Fredrick Taylor
Human relations management approach
all about how the employee feels. If you make the employee feel like they are important, they become more cohesive and productive
Process (administrative) management approach
focus on managing the organization as a whole entity
executive or senior level managers, they have the most power/authority
AKA administrative level managers, usually selected by top-level managers.
aka first-line managers, report to middle-level managers and are responsible for the employees who work in their units
influencing people to work together to achieve a goal
full range of leadership model (Bass and Avolio 1994): punishment and reward for the level of employee's work.
non-transactional (laissez-faire leadership)
full range of leadership model (Bass and Avolio 1994): leaders neither monitor nor correct their followers. least effective
full range of leadership model (Bass and Avolio 1994): these leaders are trustworthy, encouraging, risk taking, and considerate. They raise their followers consciousness about the importance of outcomes and place organizational interest ahead of self-interest. most effective
ability to influence others and you have control over resources
diverse workforce in the sport industry
1 of 4 strategies to manage organizational diversity: don't value diversity (no men in WNBA)
1 of 4 strategies to manage organizational diversity: leaders want to level the playing field for members of diverse groups.
1 of 4 strategies to manage organizational diversity: leaders have embraced the notion that a diverse workforce is beneficial. differences are celebrated
1 of 4 strategies to manage organizational diversity: diversity is ingrained in the organization. diversity is central to the core operations of the organization.