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which one of Piaget's stages is occuring?

concrete operational

what happens in concrete operational?

experience is tied with physical representations

vygotsky's sociocultural cognitive theory

continuous: cognitive development is constructed through child's social and contextual environment

what happens in vygotsky's sociocultural theory

interactions with others
learning in ZPD

what is scaffolding?

just enough help to get the student to just barely be able to do something on their own

was is ZPD

zone of proximal development

what happens if we are above or below our ZPD?

above: anxious
below: bored

what happens with info processing in this stage?

increase in speed and memory
cognitive self-regulation
recall and recognition
memory strategies

what is metacognition?

thinking about thought; being able to understand how we process things

what are the three memory strategies?

rehearsal: repetition
organization: grouping related items
elaboration: creating relationships/shared meanings

what does Intelligence require

capacity to learn
total knowledge acquired
abilility to adapt to new situations


becomes stable at 6
correlates with academic achievement and number of yrs. in school

common measurements of IQ

Standford-Binet (first test, one test)
Wechsler intelligence-test for difference ages

differences in intelligence

AF. AM. children average 15 points lower than whites
gap btw. low and middle SES is 15-20 points
people with higher IQ stay in school longer
people who stay in school longer have higher IQ

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