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5th Grade Math STAAR Vocabulary
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Gravity
Terms in this set (241)
acute Angle
an angle measuring less than 90 degrees
acute Triangle
a triangle with three acute angles
addends
numbers that are added
additive pattern
a relationship among a set of ordered pairs in which the same addend is added to the x-value
adjacent
side by side, adjoining
algorithm
a step-by-step process for solving a problem
angle
the figure formed by 2 rays that extend from a common endpoint
approximate
verb: to estimate, come close to
area
the number of square units needed to cover a surface
area model
a model or figure used to represent area
area of a base
in a three dimensional figure, the area, in square units , of the base of the figure
associative property
the property of addition or multiplication in which the groupings change but the outcome doesn't; (1+2)+3=1+(2+3)
attribute
a characteristic or property of a shape or a thing
axis/axes
the horizontal (x-axis) and vertical (y-axis)
number lines on a coordinate plane
balance
(of a bank account) the total amount of money in a bank account at any given time
balanced budget
an organized plan for money in which the total income equals the total expenses for a given period of time
bar graph
a graph that uses horizontal or vertical bars to represent data
base
(of a figure) a special face or pair of faces on a three-dimensional figure
borrow
to obtain or use money from a bank or other person in order to purchase goods or services
brackets
symbols used to group part of a mathematical expression or equation; []
budget
an organized plan, developed by a person, family or business for spending and saving money
capacity
a measure of the amount of liquid a container will hold
cash
paper money and coins
categorical data
observations that can be sorted into groups or categories such as shoe colors or favorite vegetables
centimeter
(cm) a metric unit equal to 10 millimeters, used to measure length
check
a slip of paper that is filled out to allow a bank to take money from a checking account to pay for a purchase
check register
a table for recording information about checks written on a bank account
checking account
an account at a bank that allows a person to deposit or withdraw money and write checks to pay for goods and services
common denominator
a denominator that is the same in two or more fractions
common factor
a number that is a factor of two or more numbers
factors of 6: 1,2,3,6
factors of 9; 1,3,9
Common factors of 6 and 9 are 1 and 3
common multiple
a number that is a shared multiple of two or more numbers
multiples of 3: 3,6,9,12,15
multiples of 5: 5,10, 15,20
Common multiple of 3 and 5 is 15
Commutative Property
a property of addition or multiplication in which the sum or product stays the same when the order of the addends or factors is changed; 3x4=4x3
compare
to determine whether two or more numbers or quantities are greater than, less than, or equal to one another
compatible numbers
a pair of numbers that are easy to compute mentally: 3720 divided by 58 is close to 3600 divided by 60, so the estimated quotient is 60
compensation
an estimation strategy in which numbers are rounded and then mentally adjusted; 496.2 + 308.5 would round to 496 + 309 . Then, increase one to 500 and the other to 305 and get the estimated sum of 805
compose
to join numbers to create tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.
composite number
a whole number that has more than two whole number factors; 10 is composite because it has the factors 1,2,5,10
congruent
having the same size and shape
consumer
a person or an organization that uses the goods and services provided by others.
continuous data
measurement data such as height and weight that can take any value within a range
coordinate plane
a plane formed by two perpendicular number lines called axes; every point can be named by an ordered pair of numbers
coordinates
an ordered pair of numbers (x,y) used to locate a point on a coordinate plane
corresponding terms
two numbers of elements that occupy the same position in two different patterns
credit
an amount of money that a lender or business allows a person to use to purchase goods and services with a promise to repay the money, usually with interest
credit card
a card issued by a bank, store or other business, that is used to borrow money or buy goods and services on credit, consumers make regular payments to repay the bank, store or business
cube
a three dimensional figure with six congruent square faces
cubic unit
a unit, shaped like a cube with a dimension of 1x1x1; used to measure volume
cup
(c) customary unit equal to 8 fluid ounces; used to measure liquid volume (capacity)
customary system of measurement
the measurement system used most often in the United States
data
a collection of facts or information gathered by observing, questioning, or measuring, usually displayed on a chart, table or graph
debit
an amount of money subtracted from a bank account
debit card
a card issued by a bank that a consumer uses to pay for purchases with money from a checking account
debt
money, goods, or services owed to others
decimal number
a number that uses a decimal point to show tenths, hundredths, and thousandths
decimal point
the dot used to separate the ones place from the tenths place in a decimal number
decompose
to break down or break apart into smaller parts
deduct
to subtract money from a total
deficit
the amount of additional money a person would need in order to pay all expenses
degree
a unit of measure for angles and temperatures
denominator
the bottom number in a fraction, the total number of equal parts
deposit
money placed into a checking or savings account at a bank
difference
the answer to a subtraction problem
digit
one of the symbols 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, and 9 used to write numbers
dimension
the measurement of a geometric shape in one direction
discrete data
data, such as shoe sizes or numbers of pets that can take only certain values
distributive property
the property which states that multiplying a sum by a number is the same as multiplying each addend by the number and then adding the products: a(b+c)=ab+ac
dividend
the number to be divided in a division problem
divisibility rules
patterns used to determine whether a number divides evenly into another number without actually completing the division
divisible
when one number can be divided by another number with no remainder: for example,21 is divisible by 3 and 7
division
the operation of making equal groups to find the number in each group or to find the number of equal groups
divisor
the number by which another number is divided
dot plot
a graph that uses dots above a number line to show the frequency of data
double
twice as much
dozen
a group or set of 12
edge
the line segment where two faces of a solid figure meet
electronic payment
a payment, made over the internet, that allows money to be taken directly from a consumer's bank account
equation
a number sentence that uses the equal sign to show that two expressions are equal
equilateral triangle
a triangle with three congruent sides
equivalent
the same in value or amount
equivalent fractions
two or more fractions that are equal
estimate
an answer that is close to the exact answer
evaluate
to find the value of an expression
expanded notation
a way to write numbers that shows the value of each digit
expense
an amount of money used to buy goods or services
expression
a mathematical combination of numbers, operations and or variables
face
a flat surface of a 3-dimensional solid figure
fact family
a set of related number sentences
factor
a number that is multiplied by another number to find a product. The factors of 6 are 1,2,3, and 6.
factor pair
two numbers whose product is a given number
federal government
the United States government headquartered in Washington D.C.
fixed expense
a cost that is the same each month and that cannot be easily adjusted to balance a budget; for example, a car payment or rent
fluid ounce
(fl oz) a customary unit used to measure small amounts of liquid volume (capacity)
foot
(ft) a customary unit equal to 12 inches; used to measure length
formula
an equation that states a fact or a rule expressed by symbols
fraction
a number that names a part of a whole or part of a group
frequency
the number of times an event happens
frequency table
a table listing each value that appears in a data set followed by the number of times it will appear
front end estimation
an estimation made using the front-end digit of a number
gallon
(gal) a customary unit equal to 4 quarts, 8 pints, or 16 cups, used to measure liquid (capacity)
goods
items produced for sale
gram
(g) a metric unit equal to 10 milligrams; used to measure mass
greater than >
the symbol used to compare two numbers when the larger number is on the left
21>13 means 21 is greater than 13
greatest common factor
(GCF) the largest factor that two or more numbers have in common
gross income
the total amount of money a worker earns before taxes and other deductions are withheld
grouping symbols
braces, brackets, or parentheses used to group numbers, symbols, and/or variables; calculations within grouping symbols must be completed first
height
the distance from bottom to top
hierarchy
an arrangement or grouping that shows how items in one category relate to items in another category
horizontal
the direction from left to right; parallel to the horizon
hour
a unit equal to 60 minutes; used to measure time
hundredth
one of 100 equal parts; the second place to the right of the decimal point
identity property of addition
the property which states that the sum of any number and zero is that number
identity property of multiplication
the property which states that the product of 1 and any factor is the factor
improper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator
inch
(in.) a customary unit used to measure length
income
the amount of money received in a particular time (weekly, monthly, yearly) in exchange for work
income tax
a yearly federal tax on a person's earnings
input-output table
a table of values that follows a rule; used to show the pattern in x-values and their corresponding y-values
interest
money paid by a borrower in exchange for using a lender's money for a certain period of time
isosceles triangle
a triangle with two congruent sides
justify
to explain why a solution was chosen
kilogram
(kg) a metric unit equal to 1,000 grams; used to measure mass
kilometer
(km) a metric unit equal to 1,000 meters; used to measure length and distance
kite
a quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, adjacent sides
least common denominator
(LCD) the least common multiple of the denominators of every fraction in a given set of fractions
least common multiple
(LCM) the smallest number, other than 0, that is a common multiple of two or more numbers
ledger
a table used to record income and expenses
length
the distance from one end of an object to the other
less than <
the symbol used to compare two numbers when the smaller number is on the left; 14<29 means 14 is less than 29
liquid volume
the amount or quantity of liquid in a container; capacity
liter
(L) a metric unit used to measure liquid volume (capacity)
loan
money that is borrowed by a person to purchase goods or services; the borrower agrees to repay the money over a set period of time with interest
local government
the government in a city, town, or country
lowest terms
the simplest form of a fraction in which the numerator and the denominator have no common factor except 1
mass
the measure of the amount of matter in an object; gravity does not affect mass
measure
to find the size; weight/mass, or capacity of an item using a given unit
meter
(m) a metric unit equal to 100 centimeters or 1,000 millimeters; used to measure length
metric system of measurement
a measurement system used throughout the world, based on multiples of 10
mile
(mi) a customary unit equal to 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet; used to measure length or distance
milligram
(mg) a metric unit used to measure mass
milliliter
(mL) a metric unit used to measure capacity
millimeter
(mm) a metric unit used to measure length
minute
a unit equal to 60 seconds; used to measure time
mixed number
a number composed of a whole number and a fraction; such as 2 3/4 or 5 1/8
model
a drawing, diagram, or smaller version of something that represents the actual object
multiple
the product of a given number and any whole number; Multiples of 5 include 5,10,15,20,......
multiplication
the operation using repeated addition of the same number; the combining of equal groups
multiplicative pattern
a relationship among a set of ordered pairs in which each x-value is multiplied by by the same factor to find each corresponding y-value
net income
the total amount of money a worker takes home after taxes and other deductions are withheld
number line
a line on which points correspond to numbers
numerator
the top number in a fraction; how many equal parts are being considered
numerical data
values that can be counted or measured and placed in order such as dollars earned or minutes spent on homework
numerical expression
a mathematical combination of numbers, operations, and/or variables
obtuse angle
an angle measuring more that 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees
obtuse triangle
a triangle that has one angle greater than 90 degrees
ordered pair
a pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate plane
origin
the point on the coordinate plane where the x-axis and y-axis intersect: (0,0)
ounce
(oz) a customary unit used to measure weight
overdraw
to spend an amount greater than the balance of an account
parallel
never meeting or intersecting; always the same distance apart
parallel lines
two lines in the same plane that never intersect
parallelogram
a quadrilateral with opposite sides that are parallel and congruent
parentheses
symbols used to group part of a mathematical expression or equation; ()
partial product
when multiplying by a multi-digit multiplier, the result obtained when a factor is multiplied by the value of one of the digits
partition
to divide or separate a whole into parts
pattern
a regularly-repeated arrangement of numbers, letters, shapes, etc.
payroll tax
money withheld from a worker's paycheck to fund federal programs such as Social Security and Medicare
perimeter
the distance around a two dimensional figure
perpendicular
intersecting at right angles
perpendicular lines
lines that intersect to form right angles
pint
(pt) a customary unit equal to 2 cups; used to measure liquid volume (capacity)
place value
the value determined by the position of a digit in a number
plot
to determine and mark points on the coordinate plane
point
an exact location or position: a point may be represented by a dot
polygon
a closed figure made of line segments
pound
(lb) a customary unit equal to 16 ounces; used to measure weight
prime number
a whole number greater than 1 with exactly two factors, 1 and itself: 2,3,5, and 7 are prime numbers
product
the answer to a multiplication problem
proper fraction
a fraction in which the numerator is less than the denominator such as 2/5
property tax
a yearly tax on homes, lands, and other property that helps pay for local needs such as schools, firefighters, etc.
quadrant
any of the four regions of the coordinate plane
quadrilateral
a polygon with four sides and angles
quart
(qt) a customary unit equal to 2 pints or 4 cups; used to measure liquid volume
quotient
the answer to a division problem
reasonable
logical or sensible
reciprocal
one of two numbers whose product is 1; the reciprocal of 2 is 1/2
rectangle
a parallelogram with four right angles
rectangular prism
a 3-dimensional figure with rectangular faces
regular polygon
a polygon in which all sides are the same length and all angles have the same measure
remainder
the number left over after dividing into equal groups
rhombus
a parallelogram in which all four sides are congruent and opposite angles are congruent
right angle
an angle with the measure of 90 degrees
right triangle
a triangle with one right angle
round
to approximate a number to a given place value
rule
a procedure that a pattern must follow
salary
a set payment that a person receives in exchange for work performed
sales tax
a city or state tax added to the price of an item
savings account
a bank account that allows a customer to deposit and withdraw money and earn interest from the bank
scalene triangle
a triangle with no congruent sides
scatterplot
a graph made by plotting points on a coordinate plane to show the relationship between two values in a set of data
second
a unit used to measure small amounts of time
services
activities performed by people or businesses that satisfy other people's wants or needs
simplest form
the form of a fraction in which the greatest common factor of the numerator and the denominator is 1
simplify
to write a fraction in lowest terms
square
a special rectangle with 4 sides of equal measure
square unit
a square with a side length of 1 unit; used to measure area; square units include square inch, square foot, square centimeter and square meter
standard form
a number written with one digit for each place value
state government
the government of a state, headquartered in the state's capital such as Austin, Texas
stem-and-leaf plot
a display of data in which digits with larger place values are named as stems and digits with smaller place values are named as leaves
subtotal
the total price of goods or services before sales tax is added
sum
the answer to an addition problem
surplus
an amount of money greater than the amount needed
survey
to ask man people the same questions in order to gather data
table
information organized in columns and rows
tax
money required of individuals and businesses in order to pay for government services
tenth
one of 10 equal parts; the first place to the right of the decimal point
term (of a sequence)
one of the numbers in a sequence or pattern
thousandth
one of 1,000 equal parts; the third place to the right of the decimal point
three-dimensional figure
a solid figure that has length, width and height
ton
(T) a customary unit equal to 2,000 pounds; used to measure weight
trapezoid
a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides
triple
three times as much
two dimensional figure
a plane figure that has length and width
unequal denominators
fractions that have different denominators such as 2/5 and 3/8
unit cube
a cube in which each dimension (length, width, height) measures one unit
unit fraction
a fraction with a numerator of 1, such a as 1/2,1/4,1/8, etc.
variable
a letter or symbol used to represent a number
variable expense
a cost that may change from month to month and that can be easily adjusted to balance a budget; for example, restaurant meals or movie tickets
venn diagram
a diagram showing relationships between sets
vertex/vertices
the point where two rays meet, where two sides of a polygon meet, or where the edges of a 3-dimensional figure meet; the top point of a cone or pyramid
vertical
straight up and down; perpendicular to the horizon
volume
the number of cubic units needed to fill the space occupied by a solid
wage
a regular payment, usually hourly or weekly, paid to a worker by an employee
whole numbers
the set of counting numbers and zero: 0,1,2,3,........
width
the measure or distance across something from one side to another
withdrawal
money removed from a savings or checking account
withhold
to subtract taxes from a worker's gross income
x-axis
the horizontal axis on the coordinate plane
x-coordinate
the first number in an ordered pair, locating a point on the x-axis of the coordinate plane
yard
(yd) a customary unit equal to 36 inches; used to measure length or distance
y-axis
the vertical axis on the coordinate plane
y-coordinate
the second number in an ordered pair, locating a point on the y-axis of a coordinate plane
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