Seminar Exam 1 powerpoints
Poop on a platter!
Terms in this set (67)
by the year ___ the majority of the child population will be Hispanic and Black.
The fastest growing population is ___
Children in poverty
Of the 73.9 million children in the US 16.4 million are poor; of this number 7.4% live in extreme poverty (below the poverty line by half). Children below age 5 years are the poorest and 1 in 4 infants toddlers and preschoolers are poor during the years of greatest brain development. According to CDF 8 million children ( or a 5th of all uninsured) have no health insurance
Minority children in school
As the population of children becomes more Black and "Brown" experts believe they will be less able to compete at grade level in the 4th or 8th grade and will be unprepared to succeed in an increasingly competitive global economy.
Complications of poverty in children
children who live in poverty typically experience inadequate housing, limited or no health care insurance, and attend poor performing schools
Children and gun violence
more children were killed by guns in 2008-2009 than US personnel both Iraq and Afghanistan Wars to date. Nearly twice as many children under 5 years died from gun fire than police officers in the line of duty.
Stats about America
67 nations have lower infant mortality rates including Thailand and Costa Rica; 114 nations have lower incidence of low birth weight including Dominican Republic, Nigerian and Kazakhstan; 15 year olds in US rank 17th among industrialized nations in reading; 15 year olds in US rank 31st among industrialized nations in math; 15 year olds rank 23rd in science
Establishing the right of children
Constitution of the United States; IN RE GAULT (1967) (was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision that held that juveniles accused of crimes in a delinquency proceeding must be afforded many of the same due process rights as adults, such as the right to timely notification of the charges, the right to confront witnesses, the right against self-incrimination, and the right to counsel. ); KENT V. UNITED STATES( 1966) is a tribunal having special authority to try and pass judgments for crimes committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority. In most modern legal systems, crimes committed by children and minors are treated differently to the same crimes committed by adults.; PARENS PARIAE ( it refers to the public policy power of the state to intervene against an abusive or negligent parent, legal guardian or informal caretaker, and to act as the parent of any child or individual who is in need of protection.)
Principles of child and family services
Safe and permanent homes; Child safety; Strengthen and support family functioning; Family continuity should be respected
In child and family services, ___ is critical; When do we intervene in the lives of children? What protections do children have? What protections do parents have? When a decision is made to offer a service or to require that a service be provided what is the precipitating event? Consider issues of need, protection, social expectations and social conditions around which we believe life should evolve.
Family, school, peers as well as the environment, political climate, SES, social change all impact "____". The tree is offered to symbolize the ecological model of human interconnectedness.
Role of government in helping children at risk
Child Saving Movement 1600-1700—Salvation through work
Orphanages in 1700's
Child Rescue Movement 1800-1900
First White House Conference on Care of Dependent Children- 1909
Social Security Act of 1935—ADC, Maternal Health
Social Security Act
Title XX, TANF, Medicaid, SSI-Supplemental Security Income; Amendments to the SS Act provide income and services to families. TANF removed the entitlement status for income support to families after 60 years. Foster care payments for children are paid thru SS Act. Title XX remains a funding source to states for many services.
SCHIP(State Children's Health Insurance Program)
Approximately 40 million have no health insurance. In Columbus, by October, the Columbus Health Dept. states many children will not be returning to school because of incomplete innoculations.
Project Head Start
EOA (Economic Opportunity Act) 1964; War on Poverty; Bipartisan support now eroding
No Child Left Behind
Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Reauthorization. Flexibility waivers & performance improvement (President Obama)
WIC (Women Infants and Children's Feeding Program) and Child Nutrition Programs (School Lunch, Breakfast and Child Care Feeding Program)
Despite government funding for child nutrition food insecurity is a growing problem in the US today.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (CAPTA) and Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978; Adoption Safe Families Act of 1997
CAPTA defined child maltreatment; created National Clearing House on Abuse and Neglect; Indian Child Welfare Act defines 'Indian child' & promotes tribal jurisdiction; ASFA limits use of reasonable efforts proof to remove child from home; permanency hearing within 12 months of placement
Juvenile Justice Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974
Diverts minor offenders; Creates Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Child protection & juvenile justice systems must share information; States must be compliant to receive federal funds.
Civil and criminal
The law is divided into two categories:
Civil law cases
Social workers are more likely to be named in ___—where someone believes they have been wronged. This includes: failure to perform one's duty—such as breaching confidentiality, not providing medication, failure to report a situation in which a client may cause harm to self or others. The standard of proof in civil law cases is "a preponderance of the evidence."
Failure to perform one's duty
For some this seems more like an ethical infraction but... Social workers are being sued for such infractions.
This exists for the benefit and protection of the client—not the practitioner. Privilege is a legal construct and refers to the right to expect certain information will be withheld in court hearings. Unless a local statute states a health provider may reveal certain information about a client the communication remains protected. "The extent of privilege is not absolute..."
This also exists to protect the client, not the practitioner. This is however a professional, ethical standard of behavior in that a worker is expected to protect the confidence of the client. The standards around confidentiality may be expressed in licensing standards, professional ethical standards, or established through case law.
This is a protection assumed through the US Constitution and affirms the right to be free from unwarranted publicity.
Two critical court cases
Jaffe v. Redmond and Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California; It is critical that we as practitioners communicate with colleagues and other professionals ethical and legal concerns related to our practice. Be certain to document fully and concisely your actions—following the standards put forth by the agency for which you work
Three dimensions of child rearing
permissiveness/restrictiveness; hostility/warmth; anxious-emotional engagement/calm detached engagement.
Closed family systems
These typically present as detached or enmeshed family systems. Such systems are isolated from the environment. Boundaries are typically very rigid with family members not being in tuned to each other and may not recognize their dysfunction until a crisis evolves. Often families in crisis experience problems similar to those endured during their families of origin (for adults). Dysfunctional family stress may result in substance use/abuse by caregiver, interpersonal violence, emotional abuse, neglect, and parental psychopathology.
The family is a ___; Families function in ways to maintain balance and a state of equilibrium; In seeking homeostasis families may be functional or dysfunctional; families may be closed or open systems presenting detachment or enmeshment.
Research suggests that school failure is associated with problems of a personal nature or problems in the home. However, school involvement and educational attainment are protective factors influencing _______ and therefore become a pivotal link in reducing risk. Also, arguably schools have the potential of reaching the greatest number of students.
Critics of the educational system argue money is going out of poor neighborhoods due to school choice and increasing numbers of charter schools. Because of sanctions associated with poor testing among district schools and the resultant loss of revenue some schools districts resort to unprofessional and unethical measures—like _______. This is intentionally identify the best and target them for resources that would not otherwise be available.
These use public dollars for alternative instructional programs.
Factors in choosing school
Is school choice a positive alternative?
Should public dollars follow the child or be targeted to specific schools and neighborhoods?
Should school performance or success be measured solely or primarily by standardized tests? Explain your position.
The Effective school
Key elements of _______ include introduction of leadership behaviors and skills, academic emphasis, student involvement, community support, strong faculty and staff support and engagement in the teaching/supportive environment, and the investment of social capital. Also in the relevant literature are school culture, student culture, and teacher climate as important elements.
Four principles associated with No Child Left Behind
stronger accountability for results; increased flexibility and local control; expanded school choice options; and emphasis on best practices or scientifically supported teaching methods.
Positive behavior support
When there is a climate or culture of expectancy for success, results often follow. ______ is an alternative approach to managing student behavior with more focus on time and activities that support student behavior.
Problems teachers share with social workers
Teachers are not well compensated; increasingly there is the possibility of physical threat or harm associated with the position (12%); physical attacks do occur (4%). In general society does not value teaching
Fundamental principles of Child welfare
Child safety is first—always;
Services should be provided in the child's home when possible;
Services should be child focused and family centered;
Child well being and family/parental well being are critically important;
Cultural responsiveness is a must to ensure competence;
Services should be time limited and permanence is the goal for all children
Information gathering is the first step in any helping relationship.
The assessment process determines the services to be included in a case services plan and how the delivery of those services will be managed.
To engage families in services—be they mandatory or voluntary requires professional skill and commitment.
A _______ is used to identify services to improve the goodness of fit between the child's needs and parental capacity to address these needs. The creation of a case plan requires extensive professional knowledge, case management skills and cultural competence. There are legal and political consideration that may go into the development of such a document.
This reflects a way of life based on generational beliefs practices, customs, and ethnicity. Culture influences the way children are raised and how families interact with children. An effective case plan acknowledges family culture
This refers to the awareness, knowledge and related skill sets workers acquire in understanding and creating cultural adaptations as needed to best serve clients. Cultural competence requires awareness of values, knowledge, skills, and communication patterns. Workers must remain mindful of religious and spiritual orientation, view of children and child raising practices, prescribed behavior in relationships, health and healing practices and or beliefs, a family's view of change and intervention, family structure and roles, norms of interdependence...
Most critical cultural factors to consider
Differences between worker and client
Experience with issue being addressed
Family make up
The changing pattern of _________ is having profound effect on the quality of life and child well being experienced by many. Consider families who may content with: Divorce, single parenting, erosion of extended family systems, immigration and cultural differences, domestic violence, child maltreatment, substance use and abuse, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender youth and their families, dysfunctional families, blended families, families who must depend on latchkey care, behavioral health problems among parents and youth, parental inconsistency... these and factors place children at risk for poor outcomes and families at risk for family dysfunction
Having laid a foundation for the importance of ________ (core values of the profession of social work) our competence goes beyond understanding difference among people to recognizing the dynamics in the life of a child and how family dynamics impact behavior and coping patterns.
When considering the well-being of children, ________ is fundamental
Dynamic and uncertain
Status of children in the US is ______________
It is important to recognize the majority of children who are poor live in families where ___________ - to include children of migrant farm workers who are at the bottom of the economic chain
Programs for children who are income poor
WIC and SNAP
Child Support Enforcement
Child Care thru Tax Credit, Title XX, Head Start
Programs in support of families of various incomes
Dependent Care Tax Credit
Family and Medical Leave
American Opportunity Tax Credit/Lifetime Learning Credit
Tuition & Fees Deduction (reduced or phased out for taxpayers with certain levels of Modified Adjusted Gross Income-MAGI)
Child Saving Movement
Focused on the value of redemption and prevention through early identification of deviance and intervention in the form of education and training; Influenced the development of the juvenile justice system; organized in 1909
Child rescue movement
Started in the 1960s to care for the needs of "illegitamate" children whose parents are seen as socially inadequate or whose parents are gone. Abused and abandoned children were either boarded out to approved families or placed in orphanages run by voluntary organisations (Tomison, 2001). Basically, the first steps toward Child Protective Services and the establishment of the foster care system.
First White House Conference on Care of dependent children
1909. Determined the most important aspects of a child's life: home care (upstanding parents who can provide for the child), preventative care of health and stopping delinquency, providing good schools
Social Security Act of 1935
The act was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children. Provided benefits for the unemployed, elderly and veterans
Economic opportunity Act of 1964
Expand educational opportunities
Increase the safety net for the poor and unemployed
Tend to health and financial needs of the elderly
1997. Designed to cover uninsured children in families with low incomes, but incomes that are too high to be covered by Medicaid
WIC and SNAP
WIC (1968) provides for healthcare and nutrition of pregnant or breastfeeding women, infants and children under 5; SNAP (can't find the year because all government websites are shut down...) offers nutrition assistance to low-income families
Earned income tax credit - 1975. a refundable tax credit for low- and medium-income individuals and couples, primarily for those who have qualifying children. When the credit exceeds the amount of taxes owed, it results in a tax refund to those who claim the credit
Child Support Enforcement
Agency that ensures the payment of child support payments by absent parents
Old age, survivors, disability and health insurance - Part of the Social Security act 1935. Federal social insurance program that provides monthly benefits to qualified retirees, their dependents, their survivors, and, in some cases, disabled workers
1972. a United States government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled
Dependent Care Tax Credit
Federal courts have confirmed that expenses incurred for the care of a dependent, such as babysitting or daycare, while the taxpayer is at work, are not included in deductible business expenses and are not deductible; single-earner households are seen as more qualified
Family and Medical Leave
1993. a United States federal law requiring covered employers to provide employees job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons. Qualified medical and family reasons include: personal or family illness, family military leave, pregnancy, adoption, or the foster care placement of a child
American Opportunity Tax Credit
2009. College students without prior drug convictions or those showing enough community service hours are eligible for a tax credit
available to taxpayers who have incurred education expenses. For this credit to be claimed by a taxpayer, the student must attend school on at least a part-time basis
Jaffe vs. Redmond
This case, in 1996, created the psychotherapist-patient privilege.
This outlines the role of education in the United States Code. Office of education, Smithsonian Museum, and Howard University are just 3 of many many things this brought into being, all pertaining to education
1996. The Act provides temporary financial assistance while aiming to get people off of that assistance, primarily through employment.