-Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to the removal of part, or all, of the female genitalia.
-The procedure consists of clitoridectomy (where all, or part of, the clitoris is removed), excision (removal of all, or part of, the labia minora), and cutting of the labia majora to create raw surfaces, which are then stitched or held together in order to form a cover over the vagina when they heal. A small hole is left to allow urine and menstrual blood to escape. In some less conventional forms of infibulation, less tissue is removed, and a larger opening is left
-The procedure is carried out at a variety of ages, ranging from shortly after birth to sometime during the first pregnancy, but most commonly occurs between the ages of four and eight. According to the World Health Organization, the average age is falling. This indicates that the practice is decreasingly associated with initiation into adulthood, and this is believed to be particularly the case in urban areas.
-An estimated 135 million of the world's girls and women have undergone genital mutilation, and two million girls a year are at risk of mutilation - approximately 6,000 per day. It is practiced extensively in Africa and is common in some countries in the Middle East. It also occurs, mainly among immigrant communities, in parts of Asia and the Pacific, North and Latin America and Europe.
-Worldwide, the most common cancer
-One in 7 American women will develop it
-Risk factors: fat intake, aging, early menarche, prolonged estrogen, inactive lifestyle, alcohol consumption, genetics
-Breastfeeding, early pregnancy reduces risk
-Early detection is critical: breast self-examinations, gynecological checkups, mammography
-Symptoms: breast lump, breast pain, nipple discharge, puckering of skin, change in nipple shape
-If untreated, the cancer will spread to other parts of the body
-Treatment: partial/modified mastectomy, radical mastectomy, lumpectomy, radiation, chemotherapy
o Around 10 years of age, the hypothalamus starts to release gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) which signals the pituitary to release FSH and LH
o At the testes, LH stimulates testosterone production; the two combine and FSH stimulate sperm production (around 12 years)
o Negative feedback loop
o Many organs and glands increase in size: testicles, penis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, Cowper's glands
o Growth spurt initiated by testosterone levels
o Testosterone and DHT develop the secondary sex characteristics: larger muscles and bones, pubic hair, thick and tough skin, deep voice, facial and chest hair, increased sex drive