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PSY Exam 1 Textbook Pool Questions
Terms in this set (31)
The concept of "stream of consciousness" is associated with
a. John Watson.
b. William James.
c. Sigmund Freud.
d. Wilhelm Wundt.
It should be easiest to teach a child to pick up his toys by utilizing the principles and techniques developed by
a. William James.
b. Abraham Maslow.
c. B. F. Skinner.
d. Wilhelm Wundt.
B. F. Skinner
Which of the following groups of psychologists would be MOST likely to focus on individual uniqueness, freedom, and potential for growth as a person?
d. Gestalt psychologists
The approach that contends psychology must study internal mental events in order to fully understand behavior is
b. cognitive psychology.
c. evolutionary psychology.
The approach that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generations is
a. clinical psychology.
b. cognitive psychology.
c. evolutionary psychology.
d. physiological psychology.
A psychologist who is interested in the psychological effect of aging would MOST likely specialize in
a. developmental psychology.
b. experimental psychology.
c. cognitive psychology.
Brooke is a graduate student whose major area of interest is in describing and understanding the consistency in people's behavior. Which research is Brooke MOST likely to specialize in?
a. Social psychology
b. Personality psychology
c. Cognitive psychology
d. Physiological psychology
Which field of psychology studies attitude change and group behavior?
a. developmental psychology
b. social psychology
Elizabeth is interested in the best way to study achievement among middle-school children, and she is also interested in the factors that underlie student motivation. Elizabeth would MOST likely describe her research interests as
a. cognitive psychology.
c. educational psychology.
d. developmental psychology.
As the result of a breakdown in communication, morale is low among employees in a local factory. A(n) ____ would be the MOST likely to be helpful in restoring communication and improving morale.
a. social psychologist
b. educational psychologist
c. industrial/organizational psychologist
d. clinical psychologist
Which of the following is a major assumption of science?
a. Events occur in a relatively orderly or predictable manner.
b. Cause and effect is indicated by correlational relationships.
c. In contrast to the behavior of lower animals, human behavior is in part a function of free will.
d. Events are largely randomly determined.
events occur in a relatively orderly or predictable manner
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is a(n)
d. operational definition.
Theories permit researchers to move from
a. understanding to application.
b. concept to description.
c. application to control.
d. description to understanding.
description to understanding
The final step in a scientific investigation is to
a. conduct the study.
b. analyze the data.
c. decide whether or not the hypothesis was supported.
d. report the findings.
analyze the data
The two main types of research methods used in psychology are the
a. experimental and descriptive/correlational research methods.
b. experimental and case study research methods.
c. descriptive and correlational research methods.
d. descriptive/correlational and case study research methods.
experimental and descriptive/correlational research methods
The purpose of the control group is to
a. make the experiment more complex.
b. isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable.
c. make statistical significance more likely.
d. isolate the effect of the dependent variable on the independent variable.
isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
Placing subjects in experimental groups such that each subject has an equal probability of ending up in any group is referred to as
a. random selection.
b. random sampling.
c. random forecasting.
d. random assignment.
As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating
a. a direct correlation between the two variables.
b. a negative correlation between the two variables.
c. a positive correlation between the two variables.
d. no correlation between the two variables.
a negative correlation between the two variables
Suppose a researcher discovered a strong negative correlation between the length of people's hair and the amount of money they paid for their automobile. In general, people who paid the least amount of money for their automobile also had
a. the longest hair.
b. mid-length hair.
c. the shortest hair.
d. either extremely long or extremely short hair.
the longest hair
Naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys all have in common that
a. they do not directly observe behavior.
b. they do not manipulate the variables under study.
c. they can show causal relationships.
d. the results obtained cannot be analyzed statistically.
they do not manipulate the variables under study
Jolyn believed that there are gender differences in driving habits. To test this assumption, she stood near a quiet intersection. Jolyn then recorded the gender of each driver who approached a stop sign and whether the individual came to a complete stop before proceeding into the intersection. Jolyn is conducting
a. an experiment with two dependent variables.
b. case study research.
c. naturalistic observation.
d. psychological testing
One advantage of naturalistic observation is that it
a. approximates the experimental method.
b. allows for cause-and-effect conclusions to be drawn.
c. allows behavior to be studied in realistic settings.
d. involves random assignment.
allows behavior to be studied in realistic settings
Trevor plans to study the relationship between people's responses to highly stressful situations and their overall health. He decides he must use correlational research, rather than experimental research, to investigate this problem. Trevor most likely chose a correlational method because correlational studies
a. tend to be more accurate than experiments.
b. have higher internal validity than experiments when there are two dependent variables.
c. can be used to study either positive or negative relationships, whereas experiments can only be used to study positive relationships.
d. can be used to investigate factors that would be unethical to manipulate in an experimental study.
can be used to investigate factors that would be unethical to manipulate in an experimental study
A researcher who wants to get a broad perspective on an area of research by combining the results from a large number of existing studies would be MOST likely to use which statistical technique?
a. standard deviation
d. means analysis
To determine whether students would like more courses scheduled in the late afternoon and evening hours, the student services department sends questionnaires to 50 students selected at random from the 5,000 who are registered at the campus. In this instance, the 5,000 students who are registered at the campus would be
a. a population.
b. a representative sample.
c. a biased sample.
d. the independent variable.
Research involving the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results can be duplicated are referred to as
a. verification studies.
b. replication studies.
c. clarification studies.
d. duplication studies.
Sometimes a subject's expectations may lead to behavior change in the absence of any effective treatment. This is referred to as an example of
a. sampling bias.
b. experimenter bias.
c. socially desirable responding.
d. the placebo effect.
the placebo effect
The tendency for survey subjects to provide answers that place them in a favorable light is referred to as
a. sampling bias.
b. response stereotyping.
c. a placebo effect.
d. socially desirable responding.
socially desirable responding
The fact that researchers often unintentionally influence the outcome of their studies implies the existence of
a. experimenter bias.
b. a placebo effect.
c. sampling bias.
d. social desirability.
If your boss thinks very highly of you in general, she may tend to see even your mediocre projects as excellent work. This would be evidence for
a. the discriminative effect.
b. the sampling effect.
c. the placebo effect.
d. the halo effect
the halo effect
Research has revealed that subjects who participated in research involving deception
a. were psychologically distressed at being deceived.
b. suffered extreme embarrassment at being "fooled."
c. didn't mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research.
d. lost the ability to trust others.
didn't mind being misled and generally enjoyed taking part in research
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