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Test 2: Homework Assignments
Terms in this set (66)
Manatees and seals both share some phenotypic similarities that are adaptations to an aquatic environment. However, seals evolved from a bearlike carnivore and manatees evolved from a hoofed mammal. This example shows that.......
Evolution is not always divergent.
Compare the differences in characteristics with the outgroup, in this case, the number of differences in nucleotides in the DNA sequence. The labels on the phylogeny offer hints as to the changes that occurred between species. Arrange the species on the cladogram based on the information in the table and changes indicated within the cladogram.
Which two domains are most closely related?
Archaea and eukarya.
Determine whether each structure is homologous or homoplastic.
Webbed feet of ducks and otters.
True roots and root-like stems (rhizomes) of plants.
Long snout of egg laying echidna and placental giant anteater.
Flippers of dolphins and fins of fish.
Cactus spine and tree leaf.
Tailbone of human and tail of dogs.
Wings of bats and flippers of whales.
Mammals and birds are both warm-blooded (homeothermic). This shared character state.....
Is not useful for revealing close evolutionary relationships among different types of animals.
According to the phylogeny depicted in the figure, what species is most closely related to humans?
Select any accurate statements about the molecular clock.
To use the molecular clock method, scientists must be fairly confident about the timing of at least one divergence event. The molecular clock uses the rate of DNA divergence to determine the time of evolutionary branching events.
Place these categories in the correct order from largest down to smallest.
Based on the phylogenetic trees above, what can you conclude about the evolution of saber-toothed animals?
Saber-toothed animals arose by convergent evolution, as we see similar characteristics in unrelated species.
Label whether the groups highlighted in pink in the figure are monophyletic, polyphyletic, or paraphyletic. (Note these phylogenies are drawn with diagonal branches rather than rectangular branches as see in the text.)
The phylogenetic species concept (PSC) declares that a group is a species if it......
Has evolved one or more of its own derived characters.
Parental care in dinosaurs, crocodiles, and birds is an example of........
Homology caused by common descent.
A group is considered monophyletic if......
All members of the group share a common ancestor that is included in the group.
What can you conclude from the fact that DNA analysis of all chloroplasts reveals that they are monophyletic?
Endosymbiosis of the same species of cyanobacteria occurred multiple times in cells that evolved into red, green, and brown algae.
Most infectious diseases in humans are caused by ____.
One day after a biology class four of your friends argue about the difference between phylogeny and systematics. Which friend is right?
Friend D says that the way she remembers is that systematics is the reconstruction and study of phylogenies.
Saber teeth found in different groups of extinct carnivorous mammals are considered ___________ structures, as the fossil record shows that saber teeth evolved independently among the groups.
There are many features that distinguish bacteria and archaea. Which of the following is/are characteristic of bacteria but not archaea?
Protein synthesis begins with formyl-methionine. Growth inhibited by streptomycin and chloramphenicol. Peptidoglycan in cell wall.
Systematists often use DNA sequencing in ______________, the study of the order of evolutionary events within a group sharing derived characters.
The study and reconstruction of phylogenies is......
The early bony fishes, typified by the sturgeon (bottom), had feeble jaws and long shark-like tails. They dominated the Devonian (the Age of Fishes), to be succeeded in the Triassic (the period when dinosaurs appeared) by fishes like the gar pike (middle) with a shorter more powerful jaw that improved feeding and a shortened more maneuverable tail that improved locomotion. They were in turn succeeded by teleost fishes like the perch (top), with an even better tail for fast, maneuverable swimming and a complex mouth with a mobile upper jaw that slides forward as the mouth opens.
New genera appear after adaptations occur in orders.
The biological specialty that deals with the reconstruction and study of phylogenies is called _________.
Characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be ______________ characteristics.
The evolution of saber teeth in a both extinct carnivorous mammals and marsupials is an example of.......
Homoplasy caused by convergence.
A phylogenetically based taxonomy is important not only in creating a logical way to name organisms, but also in learning about ________ of organisms using information in related species. Check all that apply.
The evolution of conducting tubes (sieve tubes) in land plants and aquatic brown algae is an example of......
Homoplasy caused by convergence.
Birds, snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles are all thought to share a common ancestor and several homologous traits. Assuming that this is true, these groups of animals and their common ancestor would represent......
A monophyletic group.
A group is considered paraphyletic if......
Not all descendants of the common ancestor are included.
Retroviruses are unique because they are a combination of RNA and DNA. True or False.
Viruses that become established as stable parts of the host cell genome are called.......
A layer of lipoprotein and glycoprotein that covers the outer surface of some viruses is the........
Which method of horizontal gene transfer is most likely to transfer two genes that are near each other on a bacterial chromosome?
DNA replication and gene expression in archaeans more closely resemble eukaryotic cells than the same processes in bacteria. However both Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotic. What does this suggest?
Eukaryotic cells shared a more recent common ancestor with archaeans than with bacterial cells.
The fungus Penicillium produces a compound that blocks peptidoglycan assembly. Why is a fungus trying to kill bacteria?
Fungi and bacteria are both decomposers and compete for resources.
Plasma from a sick mouse is filtered across a membrane that has a 200 nm pore size. If the filtrate is still infectious when injected into a healthy mouse, then the pathogen is most likely a(n).........
Some prokaryotes attach to other substrates by hairlike outgrowths, which are shorter than flagella. These are called......
Many cells of the immune system have receptors that detect peptidoglycans and lipopolysaccharides. How do pathogenic bacteria avoid detection?
Pathogens often encase themselves in a gelatinous capsule.
A mutation in the gene encoding the integrase enzyme renders the protein nonfunctional. How would this affect-the HIV infection cycle?
The viral DNA would not be able to integrate the viral genome into a chromosome.
Vaccines work by priming the immune system and inducing the formation of antibodies and memory cells. When the actual virus infects the host, the host's immune system recognizes and responds to it. What feature(s) of HIV allow it to thwart this system, making a vaccine difficult?
The genome of RNA viruses has a high mutation rate. During latency, the integrated virus is hidden from the immune system.
HIV directly attacks important cells of the immune system.
How would a microbiologist test if a particular strain of bacteria could resist an antibiotic?
Formulate a nutrient rich growth medium that contains the antibiotic and try and grow the bacteria in the medium.
If the viral gene is AUGCCCAGG and the mRNA used to make the viral protein is UACGGGUCC, then the virus is a :
Negative strand RNA virus
Select all of the false statements concerning HIV and AIDS.
HIV eventually kills the host. AIDS attacks the host's immune system. Binding to the coreceptor CCCR5 is unique to HIV and SIV.
Most Americans born before 1970 have a permanent scar on their shoulders from the smallpox vaccine. Why don't younger Americans have one?
Smallpox has been eradicated by a worldwide vaccination program.
Bacteria that test _________ usually have simple cell walls.
The outer layer of _________ cell walls are usually rich in lipopolysaccharides.
Differences in bacterial movement can be attributed to differences in their ______.
The _______ is one feature that all bacteria share.
Select all the false statements concerning photoautotrophic prokaryotes.
All of these organisms produce O2 as a byproduct. They all use chlorophyll to absorb light energy. They use pigments to absorb light energy but only cyanobacteria use chloroplasts.
A scientist is measuring the amount of each nucleic acid-base in the genomes of various strains of bacteria. What is the most likely objective of the scientist?
To classify the bacteria according the their %G/C.
Which category of organisms is responsible for fixing the world's supply of carbon?
There are two strains of a particular bacterium (X and Y); when injected into a mouse, strain X is lethal and strain Y is not. If live strain Y is mixed with lysed strain X and the mixture is then injected into a mouse, the mouse dies. Why is the normally harmless strain able to kill the mouse?
Transformation occured when the live strain Y bacteria picked up DNA from the lysed cells.
Microfossils are fossilized forms of microscopic life. These ancient objects provide evidence that ________ best represent the most ancient life forms.
Why are Mycoplasma bacteria pleomorphic?
They lack a cell wall.
Which feature of the bacterial gene has the most influence on its likelihood of being transferred along with the F-plasmid?
The proximity to the F-plasmid genes.
Select all the true statements concerning prokaryotic organisms.
Biofilms may consist of multicellular assemblages of prokaryotic organisms. Nearly all prokaryotic organisms are unicellular.
Natural penicillin blocks the assembly of peptidoglycans. Its highly effective against gram positive bacteria, but not very effective against gram negative bacteria. Why?
Gram negative bacteria have lipopolysaccharides in addition to the peptidoglycans.
What best describes whether a virus is likely to infect a particular cell?
A virus will only infect host cells with the correct surface receptors.
Which of the following statements about the types and subtypes of the influenza (flu) virus is false?
Genetic recombination between flu strains from different species is common.
Which of the following is not a shape seen in prokaryotes?
Which of the following statements about generalized transduction is false?
"Headfull" packaging always places only phage DNA into the phage head during phage packaging in generalized transduction.
Archaea differ from Bacteria in all of the following except.......
the presence of a nucleoid region.
Are transformation and transduction the same process?
No, although both involve gene transfer, the sources of the genetic material differ.
Bacteria typically use binary fission, but under special circumstances sexual reproduction is possible via horizontal gene transfer. T or F.
Deep sea thermal vents are characterized by extreme pressures, very high water temperature (exceeding 100 Celsius), and very high concentrations of minerals. What type of prokaryotic organisms are most likely to be found there and why?
Archaea; tetraethers are more thermally stable
HIV uses cell surface receptors to enter host cells. Why does switching from a CCR5 coreceptor to a CXCR4 coreceptor eventually shut down the immune system?
Because it allows the virus to infect a larger variety of immune cells.
In 1982, researchers discovered that a major cause of human ulcers was due to infection with which of the following bacterium?
Place the characteristic into the appropriate category of bacterial cell wall.
-Appears purple when stained
-Thick peptidoglycan layer
-No porin proteins
-Outer liposaccharide layer
-Appears pink when stained
-Thin peptidoglycan layer
-Has porin proteins
Why is rRNA used to construct phylogenies of the different domains?
rRNA is highly conserved across wide ranging taxa.
Strep throat is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. S. pyogenes is gram-positive. What would a microbiologist expect to see when examining stained specimens under a microscope?
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