Food Web, Food Chain, Food Pyramid

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Terms in this set (...)

Organisms
living things; form of life, such as a plant, animal, or bacterium
Energy pyramid
A diagram that shows the amount of energy available to pass from one level of a food chain to the next.
First-level consumers
A type of consumer which eats producers (plants and algae).
Second-level consumers
A type of consumer which eats first-level consumers.
Third-level (tertiary) consumers
A type of consumer which eats second-level consumers.
Competition
A contest in which organisms compete for limited resources when they live in the SAME niche.
Camouflage
Patterns of body color used by animals to help them hide from predators.
Symbiosis
A long-term relationship between different kinds of organisms.
Mutualism
A type of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit (same as interdependence).
Parasitism
A type of symbiosis in which only one organism benefits (same as dependence).
Extinct
When the last individual in a population has died and the organism is gone forever.
Threatened
An organism that is likely to become endangered.
Pollution
Any waste product that damages (pollutes) an ecosystem.
Acid rain
A type of rain that is made when water vapor in the air mixes with gases given off by cars and
factories.
Deforestation
Cutting down trees in an area to use the trees for lumber.
Conservation
Saving resources.
Recycle
Recovering a resource from an item and using the recovered resource to make a new item.
Reduce
To cut down on the use of resources. For example, using your own grocery bags each time you shop.
Reuse
To not throw away items that can be used again. For example, using cans as pencil holders.
ingredients needed for photosynthesis
Sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll are ingredients needed for this process only done by plants and algae.
plants and algae
The only organisms capable of photosynthesis.
plants, animals, and algae
examples of biotic (living things) in an ecosystem
soil, gravel, rock, oxygen (air), dead leaf material, twigs, sunlight, water, and weather
examples of abiotic (non-living things) in an ecosystem
vultures, isopods, and snails are examples of these types of consumers
examples of scavengers
bacteria, fungi, and mushrooms examples of these types of consumers
examples of decomposers
sun
the primary source of energy for all living things on Earth
add nutrients to make soil more fertile which helps plants to grow better better by breaking down the tissues of dead animals
job of decomposers
What will organisms do when resources (such as food, shelter, water, etc) are limited and they live in the same niche?
Organisms will COMPETE for resources if they occupy the SAME niche.
habitat destruction
Destroying the habitat (homes) of animals. It is the biggest cause of extinction today.
The relationship between a cleaner fish and a shark. The cleaner fish picks food out of the shark's teeth, gaining food and shelter. The shark gets clean teeth.
example of mutualism
The relationship between a flea and a dog. The flea gets food and shelter. The dog gets nothing.
example of parasitism
examples of terrestrial ecosystems
deciduous forest, tropical rain forest, grasslands, desert, taiga and tundra are examples of this type of ecosystem/biome
deciduous forest
A terrestrial ecosystem or biome in which trees shed their leaves each year and re-grow new ones in the spring. The deciduous forest biome has moderate temperature and rainfall.
tropical rain forest
A terrestrial ecosystem or biome that is famous for its many different kinds of plants and animals. It is hot and humid (lots of rain).
grassland
A terrestrial ecosystem or biome that is flat and covered by tall grass and grains. Many small animals live there. The grasslands are nicknamed the "breadbasket of the world." It looks like a sea of grass.
desert
A terrestrial ecosystem with less than 10 in of rainfall per year. Extreme temperatures: hot during day/cold at night and little rainfall. Plants can store water in their leaves, or have long roots to reach groundwater deep underground. Animals are mostly nocturnal, active only at night when temperatures are cooler and have adapted to living with little water.
taiga or coniferous
A terrestrial ecosystem or biome that is cold and windy with mountainside forests with tall, narrow trees growing close together, have thick bark and pine needles. There are many evergreen trees (pine trees, Christmas trees) there. There are also many birds and furry animals.
tundra
A TREELESS terrestrial ecosystem/biome that is the coldest of the six biomes between the icecap and the tree line of the artic regions. It is not always snowy there, but the ground is permanently frozen; this is called "permafrost." Very few plants grow there. Many animals with thick fur coats live in the tundra.
types of aquatic ecosystems
ocean (marine), tidal zone, saltwater marsh, mangrove, estuary, rivers and streams lakes and ponds are all examples of this type of ecosystem
ocean (marine)
Of or relating to the sea. A saltwater aquatic ecosystem. Some are shallow, others are very deep. Some are warmer or more salty than others. Life in this ecosystem include sharks, fish, octopus, whales, kelp, and coral.
tidal zone
A saltwater aquatic ecosystem found along the shore. The tide and churning waves provide a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. Organisms include starfish, sea urchins, clams, crabs and sea weed and stinging nettles.
saltwater marsh
An aquatic ecosystem that is an estuary where salt water often overflows a flat area of land. Organisms include grasses, muskrats, insects, shore birds and gulls.
mangrove
An aquatic ecosystem that is an estuary that contains mangrove trees. This ecosystem also supports an incredible diversity of creatures including pelicans, insects, snakes, lizards, frogs and crocodiles.
estuary
The place where freshwater and salt water mix. An aquatic ecosystem that is a body of water in which freshwater from a river meets and mixes with saltwater from the ocean.
rivers and streams
A freshwater aquatic ecosystem. Few plants and animals live in a river due to the constant flow of water. They often secure themselves to rocks. Organisms include large fish such as salmon.
lakes and ponds
A freshwater aquatic ecosystem. The organisms found there are numerous. They include fish, crayfish, snails, insect larvae, turtles, frogs, etc., and such plants as cattails, duckweed, water lilies, and grasses. These plants are able to send down roots.
food web
A system of interlocking and interdependent food chains.
food chain
A series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. Organisms eat other organisms
in the ecosystems. The eaten organism transfers its energy.
food pyramid
A representation of predatory relationships in the food chain in the shape of a pyramid in which various forms of life are shown on different levels with each level preying on the one below. Producers to herbivores to carnivores to secondary carnivores to predators.
ecosystem
A community and its physical environment and how the two interact.
ecology
Area of science focused on relationships of living things and their natural environment. A scientist in this area is called an ecologist.
ecologist
A scientist who studies the relationship of living things and their natural environment.
biodiversity
A wide variety of organisms.
biome
A large scale ecosystem. Examples are the terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems.
community
All the populations of organisms living in the same environment.
habitat
A place in an ecosystem where a population lives.
niche
The role each population has in its habitat.
consumer
An organism in a community that must eat to get the energy it needs. Examples are decomposers and scavengers.
decomposer
A consumer that breaks down the tissues of dead organisms. (AKA: recyclers). Examples are bacteria, fungi, and mushrooms. These help to make the soil more fertile to help plants grow.
producer
An organism that makes its own food. Examples are plants and algae.
adaptation
A change in order to fit in a new situation or use.
biotic
Having to do with life, living organisms, or caused by living organisms. Examples are plants, animals, and algae.
abiotic
NONLIVING things in an ecosystem . Examples are soil, gravel, rock, oxygen (air), dead leaf material, twigs, sunlight, water, and weather.
predator
An organism that lives by preying on other organisms. They are at the top of the food chain.
freshwater
Relating to or living in water that isn't salty. Examples are estuaries, rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds.
population
The same kind of organisms living in the same environment.
herbivore
An animal that eats only plants as food.
carnivore
An animal that eats only other animals as food.
omnivore
An animal that eats both plants and animals as food.
prey
An animal that is hunted, killed and eaten by a predator.
endangered species
A population of organisms that is likely to become extinct if steps are not taken to save it.
What will organisms do when resources (such as food, shelter, water, etc) are limited and they live in different niches?
Organisms will SHARE resources when they live in DIFFERENT niches.