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Chemistry Chapter 8
Terms in this set (31)
Represents, with symbols and formulas, the identities and relative molecular or molar amounts of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
A solid produced during a chemical reaction in a solution.
Small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation.
Represents reactants and products of a chemical reaction by their symbols and formulas.
Ex: H₂ + O₂ → H₂O
Chemical reactions in which the products re-form original reactants. Symbolized as ⇌
Equation in which reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words.
Substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction and can be recovered unchanged.
Law of Conservation of Mass
States that matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. It dictates that the number of atoms of each element must be the same on both sides of a chemical equation.
What are the four indications of a chemical reaction?
1. Evolution of energy as heat and light
2. Production of a gas (can be bubbles)
3. Formation of a precipitate
4. Color Change
How do you know for certain that a chemical reaction has taken place?
When one or more substances have undergone a change in identity
What are the three characteristics of Chemical Equations
1. The equation must represent known facts (All reactants/products must be identified and the equation must react)
2. The equation must contain the correct formulas for the reactants and products (take in account diatomic elements, molecular elements, and oxidation states)
3. The law of conservation of mass must be satisfied (same number of atoms must appear on each side of equation by ONLY using coefficients, you CAN NOT change correct subscripts)
What are the diatomic elements?
What are the molecular Elements?
S₈ and P₄
What does it mean if a reactant or product is an aqueous solution? (aq)
The reactant or product dissolves in water.
What are good guesses for the state of matter for Ionic Compounds?
Either Solid (s) or Aqueous (aq)
What are good guesses for the state of matter for Molecular Compounds?
Either Liquid (l) or Gas (g)
Helpful guidelines to follow when balancing chemical equations...
1. Balance different types of atoms one at a time.
2. 1st balance atoms of elements that are combined and that appear only once on each side of the equation.
3. Balance polyatomic ions that appear on both sides of the equation as single units.
4. Balance Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms after atoms of all other elements have been balanced.
a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound
a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances
The process of decomposing a chemical compound by the passage of an electric current.
Ex: CaCO₃ ∆→ CaO + CO₂
Decomposition of Metal Carbonates
Decomposition of Metal Hydroxides
Ca(OH)₂ ∆→ CaO + H₂O
Decomposition of Metal Chlorates
2 KClO₃ ∆→ 2 KCl + 3 O₂
One element replaces a similar element in a compound.
Ions of 2 compounds exchange places in an aqueous solution to form two new compounds.
Reaction in which a substance combines with O₂ producing light and heat.
Ex1: CxHy + 0₂ → CO₂ + H₂O
Ex2: NH₃ + O₂ → NO₃ + H₂O
a list of elements organized to the ease in which they undergo certain chemical reactions
What are the organic prefixes from 1-10?
What happens if a chemical less reactive tries to replace a chemical in a compound that is more reactive? Ex: Hg + HNO₃ → ???
There is no reaction because Mercury is below Hydrogen in the Activity Series which makes is less reactive. Mercury can not displace Hydrogen from Nitric Acid.
Ex: Hg + HNO₃ → NO REACTION
bond to hydrogen and carbon atoms.
Ex: Propene, Methane, Butane
What do ane, ene, and yne mean in hydrocarbons?
ane: Single Bond (CxH₂x+₂)
ene: Double Bond (CxH₂x)
yne: Triple Bond (CxH₂x-₂)
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