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Section 1: Surface water

runoff- rain water tthat ____________________

flows across earth's surface;

amount of runoff is affected by several factors

amount of rain, length of time it falls, steepness (slope) of the land, and the amount of vegitation

Erosion- the wearing away of soil and rock by _____


rill erosion- during a heavy rain, a small ______ forms and carrys away soil creating a groove called a channel


gully erosion-

heavy rains remove large amounts of soil and sediment from a rill channel, forming a gully

sheet erosion- ______ of water flowing across the land pick up and carry away sediments


______ erosion- water in a stream picks up sediments from the bottom and the sides of iyts channel, making the channel deeper and wider1=


river system- the network groundwater and streams that come togther to from a _____


___________________- the area of land from which a stream or river collects runoff

Drainage basin

_______________ River drainage basin- largest in the US


Stages of stream development


Young stream- flows swiftly through a steep valley

may have whitewater rapids and waterfalls; erodes the stream bottom faster that the sides

Mature stream- flows smoothly through its valley

erodes more on its sides; curves called meanders form; carves a broad and flat valley floor called a floodplain

Old stream-

flows smoothly through a floodplain it has carved

Flooding- when too much water enters a river system, it overflows its banks

dams- built to control the flow of water downstream/ levees- mounds of the earth built around the sides of a river toto prevent flooding


when water slows down it drops, or deposits, the sediment it is carrying


fan-shaped area formed by sediments that are deposited as water empties into an ocean or lake

Alluvial fan

fan-shaped area formed by sediments deposited as water empties from a mountain valley onto a flat open plain

Section 2


Groundwater- water that soaks into the earth and collects in the pores of the ____ underlying the soil


__% of all freshwater exists underground


soil and rock are _________ if water can pass through the pore spaces EX: _________

permeable/ sandstone

soil ansd rock are ___________ if water cannot pass through them EX: granite


_______- a layer of permeable rock that lets water move freely


zone of ____________- the area wher all pores in rock are filled with water


water table

upper surface of zone of saturation

many people get their water from groundwater through _____


groundwater flows into a well, and a ____ brings it to the surface


good wells extend deep into the __________________, past the water table

zone of saturation

wells can ______ during dry seasons or if the demand is too high

go dry

Artesian well-

water rises to surface under pressure


the watre table is so close to the surface that the water flows out


a hot springthat erupts periodically, shooting water and steam ito the air

groundwater can mix w/ ________________ to form carbonic acid

carbon dioxide

acidic groundwater moves through cracks in limestone, _____________ the rock


gradually the cracks in the rock enlarge until a _____ is formed



calcuim carbonate deposits that hand from a cave's ceiling


calcuim carbonate deposits that form od a cave's floor

if underground rock id disolved near the surface, a ________ mite form


SEction 3

ocean shoreline

shoreline forces-

3 major forces constantly change the shape of the shoreline

waves pound against shores, breaking rocks into smaller peices

move large amounts of sediment/ colide with thw shore at angles creating longshore currents, which act as rivers of sand in the ocean

currents move sediment _____ the shoreline


______ carry sediment out to the sea and bring in new sediment


rocky shorelines-

steeop shorelines

rocks and _______ are the most common feature


softer rocks erode awat ______ harder rocks, leaving islands of harder rocks


beaches- deposits of sediments that are parrallel to the shore

made of rock and shell fragments/ fragile because longshore surrents consatantly carry sand down the shore to form barrier islands, spits, sandbars, and baymouth bars/

barrier islands

fragile sand deposits that parallel the shore but are seperated from the mainland

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