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Axial Skeleton Test Study Guide
Terms in this set (61)
What are the parts of the axial skeleton?
skull, vertebral column, bony thorax
Which is NOT a function of the skeleton?
A) protects vital organs (skull protects brain, ribs protect organs in thoracic cavity)
B) Supports the body
C) Movement because skeletal muscles are attached
D) Hematopoiesis (creation of blood cells)
E) Stores vitamins like Vitamin K and Vitamin C
E-- stores minerals like calcium and phosphorus
Name the two types of osseous tissue and describe them.
1) COMPACT BONE: dense, smooth, homogeneous; osteocytes in lacunae
2) SPONGY BONE: small, needlelike pieces of bone called trabeculae; lots of open spaces
What are the 4 classfications of bones?
long, short, flat, and irregular
Describe short bones and give examples.
Cube-shaped; mostly spongy bone; sesamoid bones form inside of tendons. Ex: Carpal bones, tarsal bones, patella (sesamoid)
Describe long bones and give examples.
Longer than they are wide; usually are a shaft with a head at each end; mostly compact bone. Ex: femur, clavicle, phalanges, ulna, tibia, etc.
Describe flat bones and give examples.
Thin; flat; usually curved; spongy bone sandwiched in between thin layers of compact bone. Ex: scapula, ribs, skull, sternum
Describe irregular bones and give examples.
Do not fall into any of the three categories of bones. Ex: pelvis, vertebrae, coccyx, sacrum, maxilla, mandible
What term describes the hollow inside part of a long bone?
A) Medullary cavity
D) Articular cartilage
A) Medullary cavity-- contains red bone marrow in young children and yellow bone marrow in adults (adipose tissue)
What term describes the outside covering on the shaft of long bones?
B) Periosteum-- Sharpey's fibers connect it to the underlying bone; made out of fibrous connective tissue
What is the difference between an epiphyseal plate and epiphyseal line?
The epiphyseal (growth) plate is composed of hyaline cartilage. It converts to bone tissue so that bones can lengthen as children grow. The epiphyseal line is what remains of the plate in adults.
What are bone markings?
Sites of attachment for muscles, tendons, and ligaments; passages for nerves and blood vessels
Define a tuberosity.
Tuberosity= a large, rounded projection that may be slightly roughened. Ex: ischial tuberosity
Define a crest.
Crest= a prominent, narrow ridge of bone. Ex: iliac crest
Define a trochanter.
Trochanter= very large, blunt, irregular projections. Ex: on head of femur
Define a line.
Line= Narrow ridge of bone; smaller than crest. Ex: Intertrochanteric line on head of femur
Define a tubercle.
Tubercle= small, rounded process. Ex: adducter tubercle
Define a spine.
Spine= sharp, slender, pointed projection. Ex: spinous process on vertebrae
What is a process?
Any bony prominence.
Define a head.
Head= projection that helps to form a joint; bony extension on narrow neck. Ex: ribs
Define a facet.
Facet= smooth, nearly flat articular surface; projection that helps to form a joint. Ex: ribs
Define a condyle.
Condyle= rounded articular projection; helps form a joint. Ex: condyle on femur
Define a ramus.
Ramus= helps form a joint; armlike bar of bone. Ex: mandible
Which of these is NOT a depression?
What is a notch?
an indentation at the end of a structure.
What is a groove?
a shallow furrow
What is a fossa?
shallow, basinlike depression, often serving as articular surface
"Tiny canals that radiate from central canal to lacunae."
This defines which of the following terms?
A)Central (Haversian) canal
D) Perforating Volkmann's canal
Describe the components of compact bone.
Osteon (Haversian system)= unit of bone that includes a central (Haversian) canal, through which blood vessels and nerves run. Surrounding the central canal are lamellae, which are circles which contain lacunae. Lacunae are cavities which house osteocytes. Radiating from the main source in the central canal are canaliculi, which are tiny canals that carry blood vessels and nerves.
Which is NOT a characteristic of bone?
B) Great tensile strength due to collagen fibers
C) Calcium salts make it strong
A) Heavy-- bone is very lightweight
What is ossification?
The process of bone formation.
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood cell formation
A fetus's bones are all cartilage, and the cartilage is slowly replaced by bone matrix. Which two areas in the bone remain cartilage?
Articular cartilage at the ends of the epiphyses; Epiphyseal plates/lines
How is bone remodeling triggered?
Parathyroid hormone (PHT) is released when low blood calcium levels are detected. Osteoclasts are triggered to break down bone and release calcium into the blood stream. Conversely, when there are high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), the bones store more calcium.
What type of fracture does NOT puncture the skin?
What type of fracture does puncture the skin?
What three treatments are used for fractures?
1) Immobilization using a cast
2) Open reduction: Bones are secured with wires, pins, plates, screws
3) Closed reduction: bone set carefully by physician
What is a greenstick fracture?
bone is bent and one side is splintered while the other is not
What is an avulsion fracture?
A piece breaks off of the bone but usually the piece is still attached to a tendon or ligament.
What is an impacted fracture?
the ends of the broken bone are pushed up into one another
What is the difference between a segmental fracture and a comminuted fracture?
A segmental fracture is broken in two places. A comminuted fracture is broken in several places; it's pretty much shattered.
How are joints classified?
by their movement (synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses) and their structure (fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial)
What is the purpose of joints?
hold bones securely together, give the rigid skeleton mobility
What is the process of bone remodeling after a fracture?
1) A hematoma (bruise) is formed
2) Cartilage fills in the space and creates a callus
3) Fibrocartilage callus replaced by a bony callus made of spongy bone.
4) Bony callus is remodeled to create a permanent patch.
What type of joint are the sutures in the skull?
What are the different types of joints in the hand?
Wrist-- plane (gliding motion)
What motion are you doing when you show off your biceps? What about when you stretch out your arm?
What motion do you do when you turn your neck, and what kind of joint is that?
What is the motion of circumdation?
rotation in 360 degrees (ball and socket joint)
Name the three kinds of joints based on mobility.
What are bursae, and what is a tendon sheath?
Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs that reduce friction between structures like ligaments, tendons, muscles, skin, and bones.
A tendon sheath is an elongated bursae that wraps around a tendon and reduces friction.
bones do not calcify in children due to lack of vitamin D
drying of discs along with a weakening of the ligaments of the vertebral column. disc may protrude and push on spinal cord
bone forced out of normal position in joint cavity
inflammation of bursae (synovial membrane)
ligaments or tendons damaged
cartilage in between bones wear down due to wear and tear over time
as a result of damaged cartilage bones rub together at the joint. this causes a buildup of bone at the area
chronic inflammatory disorder. autoimmune disease where immune system begins to destroy its own joint tissue
uric acid accumulates in the blood. May be deposited as needle-shaped crystals in the soft tissues of joints. Very painful, often affects the big toe.
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