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Terms in this set (101)
Of these options, which is the highest in the levels of organization of life?
According to the text, in which kingdom are bacteria?
In what phylum are we humans?
According to the chromosomal theory?
genes are located on chromosomes
When describing how science should be objective, it it said it should not be influenced by interests?
research is influenced by benefits to an investigator.
Science does not prove anything
It actually attempts to disprove hypothesis, it can affirm hypotheses, that's correct because prove is too strong. strictly speaking, it applies 100% unchanging certainty.
An early step in the scientific method is
Which of these is not a characteristic of a scientific theory
Scientific theories do not imply lack of knowledge or guess
Which of these is the proper way to write scientific names?
Homo sapiens (italics)
To which level of organization does an organelle belong
To which level of organization does organ system belong
What is an assemblage of populations of multiple species that live in a particular geographic area and time?
What is the central dogma?
Homindae (Hominids) is a
An ecosystem has biotic but not abiotic components
Knowledge of what science is, what it can and cannot do, and how it works, is important to for all people.
Any study carefully and based on observations is scientific.
What are the two kinds of covalent bonds?
What pH is considered neutral?
Two atoms with the same number of__________________ are considered to be the same element.
"Shells" of atoms represent
Both A and C are correct.
Vinegar is an acid... T/F
What has more than one different kind of atom?
In what circumstances are elements made?
In nuclear reactions happening in stars
Polar covalent bonds share_________, while nonpolar covalent bonds share___________
electrons unequally, electrons equally
Where is all the action when it comes to forming covalent bonds in chemical reactions?
What is the mass number of an element with 6 protons and 6 neutrons?
At the end of an experiment or scientific study, a conclusion is formed based on:
the analysis of the experiment
Which is not a domain of life? Viral, Bacterial, Archaea, or Eukarya?
The Cell Theory in biology states that:
all living organisms are made up of one or more cells, cells come from pre-existing cells.
T or F... The bonds between water molecules are ionic bonds.
The element that has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40 AMU would have
20 protons, 20 electrons, 20 neutrons
A solution with a low pH has a
high concentration of H+ ions
The four kinds of biological macromolecules in a cell are:
proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids.
Nucleotides make up________
Amino Acids make up
Which of the following is a main component of the cell membrane?
True or False? Plant cells have a cell wall while animal cells do not?
True or False? Prokaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
True or False? The cell membrane is permeable to any molecule.
True or False? Animal cells placed in hypertonic solutions will swell and eventually burst.
What are special structures that synthesize proteins?
_________cells have internal membrane-bound compartments called____________
White blood cells can ingest bacteria through a process known as:
What is the ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth?
_________are___________ used by cells to make reactions proceed faster?
Enzymes are proteins
What is nucleotide that releases energy when a phosphate is broken off?
What is the photosynthesis reaction?
Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight --> Glucose+ Oxygen
What are the products of the light dependent reaction of photosynthesis?
During____________, carbon atoms from carbon dioxide are used to make_________
the light independent reactions, glucose
The energy that is used by almost all living things on our planet comes from the sun. It is captured by plants, algae, and some bacteria through the process of:
Plants capture the energy from sunlight:
Cell theory includes the principle that
cells are the smallest living things. nothing smaller than a cell is considered alive.
The plasma membrane.
is a double lipid layer with proteins inserted in it, which surrounds every cell individually.
Organisms that havse cells with a relatively uniform cytoplasm and no organelles are called________
Organisms whose cells have organelles and a nucleus are called
Within the nucleus of a cell, you can find
the endomembrane system within a cell includes
the endoplasmic reticum and the golgi complex
Until fairly recently it was thought that only the nucleus of each cell contained DNA. We now know that DNA is also carried in the
mitochondria and the chloroplasts.
T/F.... Eukaryotic cells in plants and fungi and all prokaryotes have a cell wall.
If you put a drop of food coloring into a glass of water, the drop of color will
slowly disperse throughout the water, because of diffusion
When large molecules such as food particles need to get into a cell, they cannot easily pass through the large plasma membrane and so they move across the membrane through the processes of:
Active transport of certain molecules involves
energy and specialized pumps or channels.
Organic molecules are made up of monomers, Which of the following is not considered a monomer of organic molecules?
Your body is filled with many types of proteins. Each type has a distinctive sequece of amino acids, which determines both its specialized__________, and its unique,
A peptide bond forms
by the removal of a water molecule, by a dehydration reaction, between two amino acids.
are information storage devices found in every cell in the body.
The two strands of a DNA molecule are held together through hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases. Which describes the base pairing?
Adenine forms hyrdogen bonds with thymine.
Carbohydrates are used for
structure and energy
Which of the following carbohydrates is not found in plants?
A characteristic common to all lipids is
that they are insoluble in water.
Lipids are used for
energy storage and some hormones.
The ability do work is the definition for
The first law of thermodynamics
says that energy can change forms, but cannot be made or destroyed.
The second law of thermodynamics
says that entropy, or disorder, continually increases in a closed system.
Chemical reactions that occur spontaneously are called
exergonic and release energy
The catalysts that help an organism
Factors that affect the activity of an enzyme molecule include
temperature and pH
In order for an enzyme to work properly
it must have a particular shape, the temperature must be within certain limits, the PH must be within certain limits.
One way that a cell can stop an enzyme from working when the cell does not need more of the product is that
the cell produces repressor molecules that alter the enzyme shape.
In competitive inhibition:
an inhibitor molecule competes with the substrate for the same binding site on the enzyme.
The source of the immediate or ready cash energy in the body is:
The energy that is used by almost all living things on our planet comes from the sun. It is captured by plants, algae, and some bacteria through the process of
Plants capture sunlight
with molecules called pigments that absorb photons and use their energy.
Visible light occupies what part of the electromagnetic spectrum
the small portion in the middle of the spectrum
The colors of light that are most effective for photosynthesis
red, blue, orange
Once a plant has initially captured the energy of a photon
a series of reactions occurs in chloroplast membranes of the cell, the energy is transferred through several steps into a molecule of ATP, several pigments, including two kinds of chlorophyll may be involved.
During photosynthesis, ATP molecules are generated by:
NADPH is recycled during photosynthesis. It is produced during the
electron transport system
NADPH is recycled during photosynthesis. It is used in the____
The overall purpose of the Calvin Cycle is to
build sugar molecules
Many plants cannot carry out the typical C3 photosynthesis in hot weather, so some plants
use c4 or CAM
The smallest particle into which a substance can be divided an still retain all of its chemical properties
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons is
Atoms are held together by a force called a bond. The three types of bonds are
iconic, covalent, hydrogen
Carbon has four electrons in its outer electron shell, therefore
it can form four single covalent bonds.
Water has some very unusual properties. These properties occur because:
of the hydrogen bonds between the individual water molecules
Which of the following properties are related to the need for significant thermal energy to break hydrogen bonds?
heat storage and heat of vaporization
The attraction of water molecules to other water molecules is called
Water sometimes ionizes, a single molecule breaking apart into a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion. Other materials may dissociate in water, resulting in an increase of either 1. hydrogen ions, or 2. hydroxide ions in the solution.
We call the results 1. acids, 2. bases.
T/F A buffer acts to keep pH constantly changing
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