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Ch 4: Sensation & Perception
Terms in this set (44)
Process of "detecting", converting and transmitting raw sensory information from the external & internal environments to the brain; begins with specialized receptor cells located in the sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, etc); Bottom-up processing
Process of selecting, organizing, & interpreting sensory information into meaningful patterns; understanding what you see and hear; Top-Down processing
located throughout the body except the brain. People with diabetes lose the sense of pain.
Information processing beginning "at the bottom" with raw sensory data sent "up" to the brain for higher-level analysis. The flow of information from the sensory receptors to the brain; putting small things together.
Information processing starting "at the top" with higher level processes, such as knowledge, experience, and expectations, and then works down; breaking down to smaller pieces.
eyes, ears. other sense organs contain receptor cells that detect & process sensory information; needs receptors
Converts receptor's energy into neural impulses that are sent on to the brain; sense to nerve impulse.
Converting sensory inputs into different sensations (different routes and different brain center; what nerve gets stimulated.
Filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending neural messages on to the cortex
From sensory receptors in our eyes, ears, skin, & other sensory organs create neural messages sent to various areas of our brain.
Pertaining to stimuli presented below conscious awareness
Decreased sensitivity due to repeated or constant stimulation; smell & touch. not good with pain
Light is a form of electromagnetic energy in a certain range of wavelengths.
Three physical properties-
-Wavelength-determines hue (color) we see.
-Amplitude- determines the intensity of brightness we see
-Complexity- Mix of light waves determines whether we see a pure color or one that is a mix of different colors
*picture we see is upside down, brain turns it.
Automatic adjustments of the eye, which occurs when muscles change the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances.
Light sensitive inner surface of the back of the eye, which contains the receptor cells for vision (rods & cones)
Detect black, white, and gray; allow us to see in dim light & at night. Consentrated at the outer ridge of the retina giving us peripheral vision.
Very high frequency; used in radiation therapy
Allow us to see color; function in day light. Concentrated near the center of the retina. Switching from light (cones) to dark (rods) takes time to focus.
Tiny pit filled entirely of cones; best vision.
where blood vessels and optic nerve enter and exit the eyeball; worst vision.
Medical name: Globe. The function of the eye is to capture light waves and focus them on receptors at the back of the eyeball.
Three layers of the eye
1. Sclera- outer part of eye (white)
2.Choriod-vascular layer of the eye. containes connective tissue
results from movement of air molecules in a particular wave pattern
Varies in length (wavelength) determines pitch; high or low
Varies in hight (amplitude) determines loudness (intensity of the sound)
Transportation of sound
Three ear bones
Malleus aka Hammer
Incus aka Anvil
Stapes aka stirrup
The act of hearing
Snail shaped structure in the middle ear containing the receptors for hearing.
Membrane that extends across the length of the Chonlea
Measures the loudness of a sound.
Sense of smell; has good memory. Smell receptors are located in the nasal membrane
Sense of taste. Taste receptors are taste buds located in papillae on the surface of the tongue. (sweet, sour, salty, bitter)
Comes from the parietal part of the brain; Involves three skin sensations- touch, temperature & pain
Skin receptors occur in various concentrations & depths in the skin.
Sense of balance. Involves the vestibular sacs & semicircular canals located within the inner ear
Static balance- Standing
Dynamic balance- when moving
Provides our brains with information about posture, orientation, & movement; located in muscles, joints, tendons. (Diabetics don't have this sense)
False or misleading perception
Three basic processes of Perception
1. selection (what we want to see)
3. Interpretation (making sense of what we see)
Filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages.
Specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information; recognizing someone but can't remember their name
Brain's tendancy to IGNORE environmental factors that remain constant
Assembling information into patterns that help us understand the world.
In terms of:
Perceiving the environment as remaining the sam even with changes in sensory input
Four best known constancies:
Ability to perceive three dimensional space & accurately judge distance
How the brain explains sensations; 3 major facts
1. Perception adaptation -brain adapts to changed environment
2. Perceptual set- readiness to perceive in a particular manner, based on expectations
3. Frame of reference- based on the context of the situation
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
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Myers' Psychology for AP
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