cultures of North America
Terms in this set (32)
thick sheets of ice
land bridge theory
bridge of land many miles wide. the area now lies under a narrow waterway called the baring straight. the theory was they came by land because the water froze and the level of oceans dropped and the shallow water became dry land.
coastal route theory
they crossed the arctic waters by boat and traveled southward along the pacific coast
became gathers when they were deprived of their main source of food so they traveled from place to place searching for wild plants and small game
in Mexico they started growing food plants including squash and lima bean they also learned how to raise animals such as cattle, pigs,llamas
a method to water crops by channeling water from rivers or streams
extra food. population grew more rapidly into cities and they became the center of government and religious life.
advance culture in which people had developed cities science and industries.
in Mexico and Central America. cities contained large public plazas lined with pyramids, temples and palaces. they developed art, government, and written languages. they studied the stars to developed a calendars.
built capitol Tenochtitlan. it was built on a series of islands in the of a lake. the center of the city was dominated by a large temple. religion played a huge role in their lives. forced the people they concurred to pay high taxes, the people turned on them.
they lived in south America. the capital Cuzco was linked to other cities and town by a great network of roads. they constructed buildings, walls to hold soil in their fields, canals to carry water and bridges. they produced fine weavings and metal work. Inca rulers wore gold and silver jewelry and their palaces contained plates of gold.
way of life
a group of people from the Appalachian mountains to the Mississippi Valley. they constructed large piles of earth. they were burial places but some served as foundations for public buildings.
a group of Mound Builders built the first city in North America called Cahokia now know in Illinois
A culture emerged in southern Utah, Colorado, Northern Arizona, and New Mexico. they built large cliff dwellings to defend against attacks. they were skilled in making baskets, pottery, and jewelry
they engaged in trade. mysteriously by 1300 they abandoned their cliff dwellings.
highly skilled farmers dug irrigation canals in the desert known today as Arizona. trade brought them in contact with people they traded for sea shells so they can ues to create jewelry and religious objects.
important trade items
for North American cultures. shells, flint for fire, copper and salt were all important trade items
close relationship to the natural world. they believed that spirits dwelled in nature and the spirits were part of their daily lives. strong oral beliefs by memorizing history and beliefs and then recited them
native American societies
women collected roots, wild seeds, nuts, acorns and berries. men hunted for game and fished
small boats made from skin
lived in the Arctic with vast harsh landed covered with ice all year long. they survived on fish, shellfish, birds and whales. most hunted caribou, moose and bear.
Pacific Northwest- southern Alaska to Northern California. Deer, bear and salmon they lived her because of so much food A family status was judge by how much wealth they can give away
was a ceremony at which the host showered their guest with gifts. baskets, canoes, clothes and furs.
winter were cold and summer could be desert like. pit house- dug into the ground. cone shaped house covered with bark. in north house made with wooding planks
Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado was dry. In summer wet. some farming and hunted.
Hopis and Zunis
pueblo people had stable towns and to protect themselves they built large apartment houses made of adobe- sun dried brick
vast region between Mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains. Farming. women planted corn, beans and squash in river valleys. they lived in earth lodges. long frames and covered with soil. they hunted buffalo and used the hides for tepees, robes, and shields. Bones for tools
covered by forest. lived by hunting, fishing and foraging for nuts and berries.
2 groups dominated eastern woodlands
Algonquian scattered through Southern Canada, Great lakes and Virginia. Iroquoian lived in New York 5 distinct nations or clans that are groups of families related to another. women had great influence and all the properties owned by a clan. They also chose a Sachem or tribal chief
league of the Iroquois
a council to make laws to keep the peace. they were still free to deal with its own affairs
mild climate but summer was hot. farming. Cherokees and Creeks built houses on wooden frames covered with straw mats. Then they plastered with mud clay to keep cool.
gulf coast created complex society. At the top stood ruler - the great sun and the nobles at the bottom were commoners called Stinkards. all nobles included the great sun had to marry stinkards In this way membership in class kept changing