UK physical landscapes - coasts
Terms in this set (49)
Where rocks are worn away and the land changes shape as a result.
Where eroded material is carried by the river downstream.
Where transported material is dropped when the river loses energy, such as when it enters the sea.
Waves crash against the rocks and compress air into the cracks. This puts pressure on the rocks. Repeated compression widens the cracks and makes bits of rock break off.
Eroded particles in the water scrape and rub against the rocks removing smaller pieces.
Eroded particles in the water smash into each other and break into smaller pieces.
Minerals in the water (such as salt) dissolve rocks.
When sediment moves along a beach in a zig-zag pattern due to waves.
This is where the coastline is made up of hard or soft rock that run parallel to the coastline. This means the rock erodes at same rate.
This is where the coastline is made up of BOTH hard and soft rock. They are usually at right angles to the coast.
The breakdown of rocks WHERE THEY ARE
Mechanical / freeze-thaw weathering
The break-down of rocks without changing the chemical composition
When carbonic acid in rainwater reacts with calcium carbonate in limestone to form calcium bicarbonate. This is soluble, so limestone is carried away in solution.
When acidic rainwater breaks down the rock, causing it to rot.
When rocks are broken down by oxygen and water.
Slide (mass movement)
Material shifts down a slope in a straight line
Slumps (mass movement)
Material shifts down a slope with a rotation
Rock falls (mass movement)
Material breaks-up and falls down a slope.
The highest point of a wave
The lowest point of a wave
The distance between the trough and crest of a wave.
The distance between wave crests.
Still water level
The level of the water if there were no waves.
A wave travelling up a beach
A wave travelling back down a beach
The distance wind blows over the sea to build-up waves.
A wave with a strong swash and weak backwash that builds-up a beach.
A wave with a weak swash and a strong backwash that erodes a beach.
A steep slope (next to the sea)
Wave cut platform
An area of flat rocks in front of a cliff that was created by marine erosion.
Part of the coastline that sticks out into the sea because it is made of more resistant rock.
An inlet in the coastline due to less resistant rock. It often contains a beach.
A natural chamber (hole) in a cliff
A bridge of rock created when a cave gets eroded the whole way through a headland.
A pillar of rock that forms when an arch collapses.
A low rock platform at water level caused when a stack is eroded by waves.
A sheltered area on a coastline made of sand or pebbles.
Ridges of sand that form just inland from a beach.
A sand or pebble beach that sticks out from the coast and is joined at one end.
A sand or pebble beach that creates a lagoon just inland from the sea. it is joined at both ends.
A barrier along the back of a beach between waves and the land.
Wooden or stone structures built at the front of the beach at right angles at regular intervals.
Lots of rocks and boulders piled at the back of a beach to create a barrier between land and sea.
Steel wire-mesh cages filled with pebbles or rocks.
Replacing lost sediment on a beach
Re-shaping a beach using the material that is there - often moving material back up a beach
Sand dune regeneration
Re-creating sand dunes along the coast to provide protection.
Flood prevention techniques that rely on manmade technology. They are often large scale and expensive.
Flood management techniques that attempt to work with nature and not alter the area too drastically.
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