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Descriptive Statistics

Numerical, graphical, and tabular methods for organizing and summarizing data


The entire collection of individuals or measurements about which information is desired


A part of the population selected for study

Categorical Data

Non-numerical individual observations

Numerical Data

Quantitative individual observations

Discrete Numerical Data

Possible values are isolated points on the number line

Continuous Numerical Data

Possible values form an entire interval on the number line

Bivariate Data

Each observation consists of two or more responses or values

Frequency Distribution

A table that displays frequencies, and sometimes relative frequencies, for each of the possible values of a categorical variable

Bar Chart

A graph of a frequency distribution for a categorical data set. Each category is represented by a bar, and the area of the bar is proportional to the corresponding frequency or relative frequency.


A picture of numerical data in which each observation is represented by a dot on or above a horizontal measurement scale.

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