102 terms

Foundations of Biology Exam 1

STUDY
PLAY
INDUCTIVE REASONING
Begins w/ specific observation, leads to general conclusion
DEDUCTIVE REASONING
Starts w/ general idea, make specific predictions and hypotheses to test
HYPOTHESIS
A statement that provides some explanation for the observed facts, testable
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
Variable to measured, counted, or observed
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
Variable to be manipulated
CONTROLLED VARIABLES
Quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant
BIOLOGY
The study of life
ENERGY
The capacity to do work
METABOLISM
The set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life
SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
Requires the two cells from different individuals unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
A single organism can reproduce without the aid of another
UNICELLULAR
Composed of one cell
MULTICELLULAR
Composed of many cells
MATTER
Has mass, occupies space
ELEMENT
Can't be broken down into another form of matter, one type of atom
ATOM
Smallest unit of an element that retains its properties
PROTON
Positively charged, in the nucleus
NEUTRON
No charge, in the nucleus
ELECTRON
Negatively charged, orbiting around the nucleus
ATOMIC NUMBER
Number of protons
ATOMIC MASS
Number of protons and neutrons
ISOTOPE
Atoms that have different numbers of neutrons
ENERGY LEVEL SHELLS
Orbitals around the nucleus, electrons in them
VALENCE SHELL
The outermost shell of the atom
CHEMICAL BOND
Union between the electron structures of two or more atoms
MOLECULE
Forms when 2 or more atoms are chemically bound together
COMPOUND
Molecules of 2 or more different elements in proportions that never vary
MIXTURE
2 or more elements that intermingle in proportions that can vary
IONIC BOND
Atoms of opposite charge attract each other
COVALENT BOND
Atoms share the valence shell
HYDROGEN BOND
Weak attraction, the positive end of a polarized cule is attracted to the negative end of another
SPECIFIC HEAT
Measure of heat capacity
COHESION
Property of water where the cules stick together by hydrogen bonds
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Any compound with carbon
HYDROCARBONS
Simplest organic compound, only contain hydrogen and carbon
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
Reactive groups of atoms attached to the carbon backbone
POLYMERIZATION
How macromolecules are formed, joining small compounds to make bigger ones
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
Take out water to combine monomers
HYDROLYSIS
Water is added to break up bigger cules
CARBOHYDRATE
Macromolecule, saccharides/sugars and starches, primary source fo fuel, plants' structural support
MONOSACCHARIDE
Building blocks of carbohydrates
DISACCHARIDE
Sugar made of 2 monosaccharides, ex: sucrose
POLYSACCHARIDE
Sugar made of 3 or more monosaccharides
GLYCOGEN
Storage starch for the supply of glucose
CHITIN
Starch that forms the exoskeleton of arthropods
CELLULOSE
Structural glucose that forms the plant cells' cell walls
PROTEIN
AA's bonded together by peptide bonds, AKA polypeptides
DENATURED
Any change is shape, structure, and function of a protein, biologically inactive protein
CELL
Simplest organization of matter that exhibits properties of life
VACUOLES
Contractile-collect water and pump outside the organism to maintain the internal environment, food-store food
MUTUALISM
Symbiotic relationship where both benefit
COMMENSALISM
Symbiotic relationship where one benefits and the other isn't affected
PARASITISM
Symbiotic relationship where one benefits and the other is harmed
PLASMA MEMBRANE
Outer boundary of the cell, selectively permeable
CYTOPLASM
Portion of the cell outside of the nucleus
NUCLEUS
Cell control center, contains chromosomes
GENES
Hereditary information in segments of DNA in chromosomes
CYTOSKELETON
Anchored to proteins in the cell membrane, composed of 3 types of protein fibers (microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments)
MICROTUBULES
Move vesicles, organelles, chromosomes via special attachment proteins
INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
Maintain cell shape and spatial organization of organelles, promote mechanical activities w/in the cytoplasm
MICROFILAMENTS
In muscle cells-helps shorten and contract cells, in nonmuscle cells-provide support for cellular structures and help form contractile systems that help with cellular movements
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
Continuous from the plasma membrane to the nuclear envelope, complex groups of flattened sheets, sacs, and tubules that spread throughout the cytoplasm, stores enzymes and other proteins
GOLGI APPARATUS
Associated w/ the ER, flattened stacks of membrane-bound cisternae, sorts, packages, and secretes proteins and lipids
CISTERNAE
Fluid reservoirs that make up the Golgi complex
VESICLES
Membranous sacs that are used to transfer and secrete proteins
LYSOSOMES
Membrane-bound spherical organelles containing enzymes that digest organic cules, selectively digests food particles and old organelles
MITOCHONDRIA
Powerhouse of the cell, site of cellular respiration
CRISTAE
The inner membrane of mitochondria that folds in on itself, increases surface area for chem reactions
SIMPLE DIFFUSION
Diffusion across a membrane
FACILITATED DIFFUSION
A cule diffuses across a membrane from high to low concentration using a carrier protein, for larger cules, no energy needed
OSMOSIS
Diffusion of water across a membrane from high to low concentration, no energy needed
TONICITY
Concentration of solutes in the water inside and outside the cell
ISOTONIC
Solute concentration is the same inside and outside the cell
HYPERTONIC
Solute concentration is higher outside the cell than inside
HYPOTONIC
Solute concentration is higher inside the cell than outside
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Cules pumped across a membrane using a carrier protein, low to high concentration
ENDOCYTOSIS
Bulk movement of materials across the plasma membrane, into the cell
PINOCYTOSIS
Uptake of small droplets of extracellular fluid
PHAGOCYTOSIS
Uptake of large solid particles or organisms
RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
A receptor on the membrane recognizes a cule outside the cell and binds w/ it
EXOCYTOSIS
Secretor vesicle fuses w/ the plasma membrane and releases contents outside the cell
HISTOLOGY
The study of tissues
THERMODYNAMICS
Study of energy and its transformations
CATABOLIC REACTION
Break down reactions and the products of the reactions have lower potential energy than the reactants
ANABOLIC REACTION
Build up reactions so the products have higher potential energy than the reactants
ENDERGONIC
Anabolic reactions, a net input of energy
EXERGONIC
Catabolic reactions, a net release of energy
ENZYME
Catalytic proteins, have active site(s) to bind w/ a substrate
CATALYST
Something that allows a reaction to occur more readily that it would w/o it
TRANSITION STATE
The state at which energy no longer needs to be added
ACTIVATION ENERGY
The amount of energy needed to start a reaction
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Ask a question, form a hypothesis, make an experiment, analyze the results, and draw conclusions
8 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
Assimilate and use energy
Respond to the environment
Maintain homeostasis
Possess DNA
Can reproduce
Composed of 1 or more cells
Evolved from other living things
Highly organized on different levels
MAX NUMBER OF ENERGY LEVELS IN AN ATOM
7
MAX NUMBER OF ELECTRONS IN EACH ORBITAL
8
CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
High heat capacity, ice is less dense than water's liquid state, high surface tension, and the universal solvent
SATURATED VS. UNSATURATED FATS
Saturated-saturated w/ hydrogen, unsaturated-contains double and triple bonds
4 LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE
Primary-sequence of AA's
Secondary-coiled/pleated structure held by hydrogen bonds
Tertiary-3D shape formed by coiled formations twisted into a more complex shape
Quaternary-2 or more proteins interacting in a chain to form a complex protein
CAUSES OF DENATURATION
Alteration of pH, temp changes
3 MAIN DIFFERENCES IN PLANT CELLS
Central vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplasts
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
1-energy can't be created or destroyed
2-the universe tends toward disorder, entropy always increasing
HOW IS ENZYME ACTIVITY CONTROLLED?
Controlled by the cell
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...