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Terms in this set (91)
______________ already existed in parts of the Louisiana Purchase when the U.S. bought it — and Congress let it remain.
In 1819, Missouri petitioned for admission into the union (as a ____________state). This was the first area the issue of slavery had not been settled in advance.
In 1819, the admission of ________________ as a slave state would upset the balance in the Senate.
Which group--Southerners or Northerners--believed Congress didn't have the right to require Missouri to abolish slavery as a condition of statehood.
Which group--Southerners or Northerners--believed Slavery was morally and politically evil and should be contained (it doesn't use the word "abolished.")
control of the Senate
During the debate over the Missouri Compromise, the South accused the North of playing politics (which there were). What was the real issue?
About the same time as Missouri, Maine applied for admission as a __________ state.
Which compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state?
In what compromise was a line was drawn 36 degrees/30 minutes across the Louisiana Purchase. North of the line would be free, south of the line would be slave.
What term refers to people in any given territory determining (voting on) the question of slavery?
antislavery men from the North (they didn't want slavery in the territories)
Who formed the Free Soil Party?
federal aid for internal improvements & free government homesteads for settlers
Besides being anti-slavery, what did the Free Soil Party support?
people who wanted NO slavery
What were abolitionists?
people who wanted NO expansion of slavery (they were the larger group)
What were Free Soilers?
They said because it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self-employment.
Why did Free Soilers condemn/hate slavery?
Henry Clay & Stephen A. Douglas
Which two men worked out the Compromise of 1850?
Which Kentucky senator was known as "the Great Compromiser"?
because that was what the people of California wanted
Why did Clay think that California must be admitted to the union as a free state?
some type of compensation such as a fugitive slave law
Clay thought California must be admitted to the union as a free state. What did he want to do for the South?
New Mexico & Utah
In the Compromise of 1850, the rest of the Mexican Cession was split into the two territories of ______ and ________.
got their $10 million war debt paid off
(The debt was owed to people who bought Texas war bonds. War bond holders supported the idea and thus the compromise without caring about slavery.)
As part of the Compromise of 1850, what did Texas get?
District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
- just the slave trade was excluded, not slavery.
As part of the Compromise of 1850, where was the slave TRADE excluded?
The Fugitive Slave Law was strengthened.
What did the South get out of the Compromise of 1850?
The law provided for the speedy return of runaway slaves to the South. Federal officials were appointed to settle cases without jury trials.
What was the Fugitive Slave Law?
Fugitive Slave Law
What part of the Compromise of 1850 alarmed Northerners the most and caused problems?
1. no jury trial for accused slaves
2. the accused couldn't testify
3. commissions were paid more if they found the accused guilty
Why was the Fugitive Slave Law so dangerous and unfair? 3 reasons
fines and jail time
What happened if someone tried to help a runaway slave?
Due to the Fugitive Slave law, who was in danger of being placed into slavery?
The Fugitive Slave Law required all _____________ and U.S. Marshals to assist in the capture of runaway slaves.
the Fugitive Slave Law
At first people in the U.S. generally accepted the Fugitive Slave Law, so why was it a "ticking time bomb"?
What term refers to the pro-slavery, southern extremists who were infuriated over the Fugitive Slave Law?
Fugitive Slave Law
NOTE: Southerners made a mistake by demanding a strong fugitive-slave law in the Compromise of 1850. This ensured that the compromise would not last.
What was the only thing the South got out of the Compromise of 1850 AND the thing the North got the MOST upset about?
They passed "personal liberty laws" regarding runaway slaves. (These laws hampered enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law by denying the use of local jails to federal officials.)
How did many northern states respond to the Compromise of 1850?
The American device of __________ worked well until the mid-1850s.
In 1854 Stephen A. _____________ sponsored and got passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
repealed the Missouri Compromise line of 36 degrees 30 minutes
(the line drawn through the Louisiana Purchase; north of the line slavery was not allowed). The repeal was an attempt to get Southern support (votes).
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act specifically repeal?
By the 1850s the Missouri Compromise line is viewed in the same context as the Constitution; therefore, to many people the repeal represents a devious and underhanded act.
What was the problem of repealing the Missouri Compromise line?
Some people felt the Kansas-Nebraska Act made sense because is was letting people at the __________ level decide the issue of slavery.
People started rushing to settle the area and vote--illegally. Many were only interested in the slavery issue.
Why would there be a problem of letting people at the local level decide the issue of slavery (Kansas-Nebraska Act)?
In Kansas a local war breaks out called ____________. (It has been referred to as a mini Civil War.)
Both sides agree that slavery cannot exist in Kansas and it certainly cannot exist in Nebraska; however, people are getting killed over principle.
What is strange about Bleeding Kansas?
This act overturned the slavery restrictions of the Missouri Compromise by introducing the concept of popular sovereignty. This meant that territories that were previously restricted from slavery could now vote on whether or not to be a slave state.
What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act do?
What group of people organized the Republican Party?
They did not want to compete with slave labor (they thought it would mess up their children's futures).
Why did members of the Republican party object to slavery?
No, it started out as a single-issue party that opposed the expansion of slavery in the territories (it was not an abolitionist party).
Was the Republican Party an abolitionist party?
No, this was the country's first 100% sectional party (there were no Republicans in the South).
Where there Republicans in the South?
In proposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act he underestimated the depth of northern opposition to the spread of slavery.
What was one of Stephen Douglas's worst political mistakes?
The Compromise of 1820 (which the act repealed directly) and the Compromise of 1850 (which northern opinion repealed indirectly).
Which two compromises did the Kansas-Nebraska Act wreck?
Which political party was fractured by the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
terrorism & guerrilla warfare
Bleeding Kansas refers to the events between May and September 1856 when ____________and ________ __________swept across Kansas.
Nebraska was assumed to be a free area. Kansas adjoined the slave state of Missouri; therefore, some Southerners thought it might be a _________state.
The majority of the people who moved to Kansas were from the normal movement of people West (young, small farmers who didn't go West for slavery - they went for good land).
Describe the majority of people who moved to Kansas. What did they have in common?
Some people deliberately moved to sway the vote in Kansas. (There was a great movement of people especially prior to the election.)
Why did some New England abolitionists move to Kansas? Why did some pro-slavery people move to Kansas?
In May 1855, Kansas held territorial elections. There were about 1,500 registered male voters in Kansas; however, ____________ votes were cast.
Following the 1855 vote in Kansas, a proslavery legislature was elected in Kansas --- which the antislavery citizens ___________to accept.
Following the 1855 vote in Kansas, the proslavery government passed a law stipulating that only proslavery men could hold ________or serve on _______.
incited (started), questioned
Following the 1855 vote in Kansas, the proslavery government passed a law stating that anyone who ________________ a slave insurrection could get the death penalty, and anyone who ______________the legality of slavery in Kansas could get five years in prison.
In 1856, when a group of pro-slavery riders burned down a part of the free-soil town of Lawrence.
How did the mini Civil War in Kansas begin?
In May 1856, Senator _______________________ of Massachusetts (an abolitionist) made his famous speech "The Crime Against Kansas." In this speech, Sumner attacked the honor of Senator Andrew P. Butler (a slaveholder) of South Carolina.
Preston "Bully" S. Brooks
Senator Andrew P. Butler's nephew, ________________ (from the House of Representatives) believed that Sumner had insulted his uncle and the family name.
beat Sumner over the head with a cane until he was unconscious
What did Preston "Bully" S. Brooks do to Charles Sumner?
Charles Sumner's empty senate seat was a solemn reminder of the ____________done to him.
The attack hardened attitudes on the slavery issue and further divided the nation. Northerners saw it was as an unfair attack/beating over a disagreement.
What is the "Bleeding Sumner" incident important?
to prevent violence
How does "Bleeding Kansas" & "Bleeding Sumner" help the argument of Republicans to keep slavery out of the territories?
In 1846, John Brown receives a visit from Frederick Douglas who believed in __________________ persuasion. Brown states that it will take blood to abolish slavery. This remark ____________ Douglas.
Which act led to the creation of the Republican Party?
What did Northerners call pro-slavery extremists?
Scott's living in a free territory had set him free.
On what grounds did Dred Scott sue his owners?
The Court ruled that Scott, as a slave, could not exercise the prerogative of a free citizen to sue in federal court. Also, the Court ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery.
What was the ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford?
to steal weapons to start a slave revolt
Why did John Brown and his men attack the Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry?
Harpers Ferry was not an area of big slave plantations. There were only 88 slaves. No one really goes to pick up weapons from Brown.
Why did John Brown's slave revolt fail?
Southerners were outraged. The event is one of the causes of the Civil War.
How did the South react to Brown's actions at Harpers Ferry?
for his attack on federal property
Why was John Brown put on trial?
someone who dies for their beliefs
John Brown was found guilty and executed. He became a martyr. What is a martyr?
Following John Brown's execution, any white _______________wrongly believed that most Northerners were abolitionists like Brown.
JB's raid was an example of what could and would happen if government was not in total support of slavery.
How did slaveholders feel about John Brown's actions at Harpers Ferry?
Many Northerners did not mourn JB or think he was right. For Northern Antislavery groups, JB represented their ideal. They admired the willingness of JB to lay down his life for his beliefs.
How did Northerners feel about John Brown's actions at Harpers Ferry?
they did not believe JB was justified
How did people like Abraham Lincoln (neither proslavery or antislavery) feel about John Brown's actions at Harpers Ferry?
Brown was seen as a major hero/deliverer. They believed no white man would do this for them - so many blacks were in disbelief that JB was white.
How did free blacks and slaves feel about John Brown's actions at Harpers Ferry?
Southerners who had been undecided on secession were won over to the pro secession side in fear their lives and property were no longer safe from northern intrusion.
NOTE: The Harpers Ferry raid by itself may not have been significant, but coming as it did at the end of a long line of divisive incidents, it may well have been the catalyst for America's Civil War.
What did events had Harpers Ferry convenience many undecided Southerners of regarding secession?
- The party platform declared that slavery could spread no farther but would not be threatened where it already existed.
- The party also promised a tariff for the protection of industry, transcontinental railroad and pledged the enactment of a law granting free homesteads to settlers who would help in the opening of the West.
In the presidential election of 1860 the Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate. What was the party platform?
Lincoln won the 1860 election but was a minority president because he received only _______% of the popular vote.
How many southern states did NOT put Lincoln's name on the ballot?
South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
Which were the initial seven states to leave the union?
Where was the first headquarters of the Confederate government?
Jefferson Davis (from Mississippi)
Who was the first and only president of the Confederacy?
During this time of secession (when states were leaving the union), _____________was still President for Lincoln was not sworn in until 1861.
President Buchanan did not hold the seceding states in the Union by force because he was surrounded by southern advisors and he could find no authority in the Constitution to stop them with force. One important reason was that the tiny army of 15,000 men of the Union was needed to control the Indians of the West.
What did Buchanan do in his remaining time as president?
Arkansas, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina
Which four states were the last to secede (after Lincoln called for volunteer soldiers)?
threaten their rights to own slaves
The southern states seceded fearing that the Republican Party would ___________________________.
Many southerners felt that their secession would be ____________ by the North.
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