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204 terms

Bio Exam 2, 3, and 4

STUDY
PLAY
Unlike prokaryotes, protest cells
divide by mitosis and/or meiosis
Euglenoids
that are green have a unique eyespot that shields their light receptor
The tetse fly transmits the trypanosome that causes _____>
African sleeping sickness
The term for free-floating or weakly swimming, microscopic members of Kingdom Protista is
plankton
Which feature is shared by freshwater euglenoids and paramecia?
Contractile vacuoles
Calcium carbonate remains of the protozoans _____ and ______ are incorporated into impressive deposits of limestone.
Foraminiferans; coccolithophores
The ______ are the most ancient lineage of protests.
Parabasalids and diplomonads
Which of the following is true regarding Trichomonas vaginalis?
It is a parasite, It attaches to the epithelial linning of the reproductive tract, It is a flagellated parabasalid, Untreated infections damage the urinary and reproductive tracts
A disease caused in the US by drinking contaminated water from mountain streams is
Giardiasis
When under attack, ciliates can eject sticky, harpoon-like threads from structures called
trichocysts
Genetic variation in the ciliate Paramecium is the result of
haploid micronuclei are exchanged during conjugation
What type of organisms make up the "red tide"?
dinoflagellates
A person can become ill with malaria after
being bitten by an Anopheles mosquito
The majority of ciliates, sporozoans, and flagellated protozoans are characterized as
heterotrophic & unicellular (both C and D)
____ are a source of soft limestone formations of chalk.
Coccolithophores
The abundant stramenophiles that are most efficient at fixing carbon dioxide, and play a major role in global cycling of carbon are
diatoms
Holdfasts, gas-filled floats, and a thick, leathery surface are found in species of
brown algae
Sources of a thickening, emulsifying agent found in ice cream, salad dressing, beer, toothpaste, cough syrup, and floor polish are the
brown algae
20. Red algae can live in deeper water because of their
dark red and blue pigments
Most freshwater algae belong to which phylum?
Chlorophytes
The photosynthetic protists that are thought to have given rise to the plants are
Green algae
Green algae and advanced land plants are similar in all EXCEPT which of the following characteristics?
Haploid dominant life cycles
Cellular slime molds can be distinguished from plasmodial slim molds on the basis of
nuclei per cell in the aggregated form
Four of the five organisms listed below are protists that form pseudopods. Select the exception.
Diatoms
The principal difference between a saprophytic and parasitic mode of nutrition is
determined by the source of the nutrients
Fungi are most closely related to _____, with who they share an amoeboid ancestor
animals
Which of the following statements describes the value of fungi in the environment?
Fungi release elements from organic matter
The sexual life cycles are known for how many major groups of fungi?
Three
Imperfect fungi are those that lack (or do not show)
sexual reproduction
The flagellate spores found in chytrids and microspordians indicate that
their fungal ancestors lived in aquatic environments
The body of a fungus is generally composed of
Mycelia
This fungal group includes species which cause
black bread mold
The club fungi are members of which of the following?
Basidiomycota
The structure labeled "A" in the figure above is a(an)
basidium
The structure that people typically refer to as a "mushroom" is in reality the
basidiocarp
A fungal cell that contains two separate haploid nuclei is known as a
dikaryon (dikaryotic)
Rusts and smuts are
plant pathogens
The main method of asexual reproduction in yeasts is
budding
Mycorrhizae are
fungus and tree root mutualistic associations
The development of a protective layer of _____ allowed organisms to survive above the surface of the water
ozone
The major difference between plants and fungi is that fungi
have a heterotrophic form of nutrition
Plants became erect, taller, and branched as a result of their ability to produce
lignin
Which of the following is true of phloem?
Connects leaves to roots & Transports plant-manufactured organic products ( Both B and D)
Plants need which of the following to carry on photosynthesis?
Water and carbon dioxide
Bryophytes are different from other land plants in that
they do not have roots and stems
Gametophytes are
haploid plants that produce gametes
Which bryophyte was used for bandages during World War I
peat moss
Which of the following statements concerning mosses is false?
Mosses have independent sporophytes
Which of the following weather conditions would you expect to have the greatest POSITIVE impact on sexual reproduction of ferns and mosses?
Continuing wet and rainy conditions
What group dominated the Carboniferous period and is now burned as coal?
Seedless vascular plants
Increasingly complex land plants developed as the _____, more resistant to cooler, drier, to unfavorable conditions, became dominant.
Sporophyte
Four of the five organisms listed below do not have vascular tissue. Select the exception
ferns
Four of the five plants listed below are heterosporous. Select the exception
ferns
56. Which were the first organisms that did not require water for reproduction?
Cycads
The largest phylum of gymnosperms includes the
conifers
The sport type that produces pollen is the
microspore
Seed ferns
early dominant seed-bearing plants that were replaced by gymnosperms
ovule
female reproductive parts that become the seed
megaspore
spore type that develops inside ovules
microspore
spore type that produces pollen
pollination
arrival of pollen grains on female reproductive structure
The gymnosperm whose extract has been used for weight loss is
Ephedra
The _____ include Welwitschia in hot African deserts and Gnetum of humid tropical regions
C
The initial, rapid expansion of angiosperms late in the Mesozoic is related to their coevolution with
insects
Angiosperms are more advanced than gymnosperms because gymnosperms lack which structure found in angiosperms?
Flowers
The triploid tissue that results from double fertilization becomes the
endosperm.
The GGC gene
Codes for an enzyme that produces a toxin
All animals are classified as
None of the above
Bilateral symmetry means an animal has
A front and a back, with a leading and a trailing end
Which of the following organisms exhibits cephalization?
Sea anemone
A digestive tract is complete if it
Is surrounded by muscle
Which of the following is a body cavity that contains a lining that encloses organs, protecting and holding them in place?
The gastrodermis
Which of the following groups does NOT have either epithelial or connective tissues?
Flatworms
The currents of water (containing food) that pass through a sponge are created by
Collar cells, resembling choanoflagellates
Sponge gemmules
Capture food
Trichoplax
Belongs to the Porifera
Trichoplax is classified as a
Sponge
Which of the following phyla is characterized by radially symmetrical members?
Chordata
Nematocysts are
The opening into the digestive cavity
The gastrodermis is
Part of the mesoglea
Bilateral symmetry is characteristic of
Sponges
Flatworms are believed to have evolved from
Sponges
On the evolutionary tree, the first phylum with organs was
Nematoda
Rotifers possess
Cilia
Rotifers are about the same size as which of the following?
Nematodes
Chronic clogging of the lymphatic system by ___ results in a condition called elephantiasis.
Cnidarians
The first phylum min which ALL members have a complete digestive system was
Nematoda
Which of the following worms is NOT related to the other four?
Pinworms
Worms with a well-developed, closed circulatory system (including five pairs of hearts) are:
Rotifers
Which annelid structure resembles the ancestral structure from which the vertebrate kidney evolved?
Trachea
What is the first phylum to have an organ specifically for respiration (gills)?
Annelida
Mollusks DO NOT include
Nudibranchs
The class of mollusks that includes snails, slugs, limpets, and nudibranchs is the
Bivalve
The mollusk group that includes the fastest, largest and smartest invertebrates is the
Gastropods
The animal phylum that contains the greatest number of known species is
Chordate
A(n) ___ provides support and protection to arthropods.
Shell
What are the unique devices used by insects for respiration?
Tracheas
The term "Arthropod" means
Fleshy foot
Which of the following is NOT a chelicerate?
Mosquito
The majority of crustaceans live in
Marin habitats
___ are the most numerous animals in aquatic habitats; eaten by other invertebrates, fishes, and whales.
Lobsters
A flattened terrestrial arthropod predator with venom and usually one pair of lets per segment is a
Millipede
The most successful class within the most biologically successful phylum is of the
Trilobite
A water-vascular system is characteristic of the phylum
Arthropoda
Which of the following classes/phyla is NOT a protostome group?
Mollusks
Which of the following invertebrates is most closely related to the vertebrates?
Mollusks
What is the notochord used for?
As a respiratory structure
Chordate embryos display all but which of the following unique features?
Dorsal tubular nerve cords
During the life of a tunicate, the notochord
Develops during adulthood
Ostracoderms lost out in evolutionary competition to animals
With an exoskeleton
Which of the following sequences correctly represents vertebrate evolution?
Birds/reptiles/amphibians/fish/mammals
Which of the following is NOT one of the trends of vertebrate evolution?
Nerve cord expanded into brain
Which of the following are craniates?
Reptiles
Internal bony jaws of vertebrates are believed to have been produced through the evolutionary modification of
Anterior gill support bars
The most diverse and successful group of vertebrates includes
Birds
The most numerous subclass of bony fishes are the
Coelacanths
Chimeras and rays differ from the majority of fish in that they lack
Paired appendages
Sharks and rays also differ from most other fish in that they lack
Lungs
In fishes ancestral to land vertebrates, pouches in the gut wall developed into
The notochord
Amphibians most likely evolved from
Placoderms
Amphibian adaptation to land include
More efficient circulatory system
Amphibians require either standing water or at least a moist habitat for
Movement
Four of the five animals below are in the same phyla. Select the exception.
Salamanders
Amniotes differ from earlier vertebrates by
Their three-chambered heart
The first group to exhibit an amniotic egg belonged to the
Amphibians
Reptiles regulate their body temperature
By having a thick layer of fat around most internal organs
The amniotic egg, also called the land egg, refers to the presence of
A membrane surrounding the embryo
Adaptations which aid birds in flight include
Enlarged sternum for muscle attachment
What membrane structure provides nourishment for developing mammalian embryos until the placenta forms?
Albumin
A high metabolic rate is necessary in order for birds and mammals to regulate
Locomotion
Key specializations that occurred in the evolution of mammals include
All of these
Mammals are placed into three subclasses based on their method of
Embryonic development and care
Marsupials fill niches in Australia that are filled by placental mammals in other parts of the world because
They were introduced to Australia by accident and do not have any native competitors or predators
Which of the following statements concerning the placenta is incorrect?
It is entirely a maternal structure
The first known primates were characterized as
Arboreal
The position of the foramen magnum at the base of the skull enables researchers to determine if a primate
Stands upright
Fingers that can touch the thumb are
Opposable
The location of the eyes on the front of the head in later primates ins especially important in
Predatory behavior
About 40,000 years ago, what kind of evolution replaced biological evolution in the shaping of modern humans?
culture
The total number of individuals that contribute to the gene pool defines the populations
size
Changes in population size can be measured in terms of
immigration, births, emigration, deaths
A situation in which the birth rate plus immigration equals the death rate plus emigration is called
zero population growth
Which of the following results if reproduction occurs early in the life cycle?
Population growth rate increases
The number of individuals in a population that can be sustained indefinitely in an environment is known as
carrying capacity
A J-shaped growth curve is converted to an S-shaped one
when the limits imposed by carry capacity is reached
Four of the five factors listed below are density-independent factors. Select the exception
nutrient supply
A cohort is
a group of individuals of species of the same age.
Type II survivorship curves
indicate a fairly constant rate of death at all ages
Four of the five organisms listed below follow a type II survivorship curve. Select the exception
elephants
The human population is currently following a J-shaped curve. This means that the population is growing
exponentially
If a population is growing at a rate of 5.0%, then the approximate doubling time (as calculated by the rule of 70) is
14 years
If the population's doubling time is 40 years, then the annual growth rate (as calculated by the rule of 70) is
1.75%
Most of the people in the world today live
in developing countries and near the coast (Both B and C)
The total fertility rate (TFR)
is the average number of children born to a woman in a population, has dropped substantially since 1950, of 2.1 is considered replacement level
Land available for agriculture is decreasing, primarily due to
salinization from irrigation
Which of the following countries has established the most extensive and rigidly enforced family-planning program
China
As the baby boomers generation enters retirement (Beginning in 2010)
the US government will have to provide increased subsidized medical care and other social programs, the cohort will require social services for a longer period of time than any other cohort so far, the cash contributions made by baby boomers to Social Security will be less than their requirements, there will be fewer workers contributing to Social Security to support the Boomers
____ can be said to be near the boundary between nonliving and living, while _____are just inside it
Viruses; prokaryotes(bacteria)
Typically, viruses include ______ around their nucleic acid
a protein coat
Which disease is not caused by virus?
Cholera
Food contaminated with _______ sickens as many as 80 million people annually in the United States
Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Listera
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and human variant (vCJD, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) are likely caused by
prions
The organisms that represent the different species within an ecosystem that interact in various ways comprise the
community
In a oak forest of the American northeast, one example of the habitat component of the ecosystem would be
sunlight that filters through the tree canopy
The interaction in which one species benefits and the second species is neither harmed nor benefited is
commensalisms
The interactive between two species in which one species benefits and the other species is harmed is
predation
The interaction between two species in which both species may be harmed is known as
competition
What type of competition has occurred when one organism uses physical or behavioral interactions to limit the access of other individuals to resources?
Interference
Gauses's experiments with Paramecium growing in test tubes demonstrated that
organisms with very similar feeding habits may compete to the point of extinction
The resemblance of Lithops, a desert plant, to a small rock is an example of
camouflage
Insects such as monarch butterfly larvae are brightly colored so that they will
discourage predators
The ability of some animals to eat plants that contain toxic compounds may be an example of
coevolution
Social parasites
complete their life cycle using behavior of another species
Which of the following is NOT true of parasites?
They inflect serious injury and quickly kill their hosts
Which of the following represents the earliest stage in primary succession?
Moss and lichens on bare rock
An example of primary succession would be
establishment of coral reef on new lava flow into ocean
controlled fires are started in national forests
to promote the development of climax communities, such as sequoia trees
A(n) ______ species is a dominant species that control community structure.
Keystone
Which of the following conditions demonstrates the area effect model of island biodiversity patterns?
Larger islands have more diversity than smaller islands the same distance from the source area
Geographic dispersal refers to
successful movement of community from its home range to a new one
The most biologically diverse habitat on Earth is
the tropical rain forest
Which of the following are heterotrophs
primary carnivores, herbivores, carnivores, detritivores, decomposers
Which of the following organisms is a primary consumer?
Cow
A network of actions that involve the cycling of materials and the flow of energy between community and environment is which of the following?
Ecosystem
Which of the following are NOT dependent on the others as a source of food?
Producers
In a natural community, which of the following are found on ALL consumer trophic levels?
Decomposers
A consumer on the fourth trophic level eats
primary carnivores
The amount of energy moved through a detrital food web is ____ that of a grazing web.
About twice as much as
Nutrients and energy move differently through the ecosystem in that _____.
Nutrients can be recycled, but energy moves in one direction through the ecosystem.
Biological magnification refers to the _______
accumulation of toxic pollutants in animals
The organisms that are most vulnerable to the effects of DDT are
top carnivores
The ultimate source of all energy in a terrestrial ecosystem is
sunlight
The pyramid of energy illustrates
the diminishing of usable energy as it is transferred through an ecosystem
Most of the energy within an ecosystem is lost
as a result of metabolism
Ecosystems obtain essential raw materials from
the components of water molecules, mineral ions dissolved in water, the weathering of rocks, the atmosphere
About half of the United States population obtains drinking water from
groundwater
What happens to most of the water that evaporates from the oceans?
It precipitates onto the oceans
An excess of which of the following elements in aquatic systems likely accounts for massive algal blooms?
Phosphorus
The primary method of removing CO2 from the atmosphere is through
photosynthesis by autotrophs
In which of the following habitats does carbon remain free for the shortest time?
Tropical forests
The greatest concentration of nitrogen on Earth is found in
the atmosphere
Nitrogen fixation is a process that
converts nitrogen gas into ammonia, which photosynthetic organisms can use
The term "eutrophic" means "full of _____".
Nutrients
The element released from sewage that is most likely to result in oxygen depletion from an aquatic ecosystem is
sulfur