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Unlike prokaryotes, protest cells

divide by mitosis and/or meiosis


that are green have a unique eyespot that shields their light receptor

The tetse fly transmits the trypanosome that causes _____>

African sleeping sickness

The term for free-floating or weakly swimming, microscopic members of Kingdom Protista is


Which feature is shared by freshwater euglenoids and paramecia?

Contractile vacuoles

Calcium carbonate remains of the protozoans _____ and ______ are incorporated into impressive deposits of limestone.

Foraminiferans; coccolithophores

The ______ are the most ancient lineage of protests.

Parabasalids and diplomonads

Which of the following is true regarding Trichomonas vaginalis?

It is a parasite, It attaches to the epithelial linning of the reproductive tract, It is a flagellated parabasalid, Untreated infections damage the urinary and reproductive tracts

A disease caused in the US by drinking contaminated water from mountain streams is


When under attack, ciliates can eject sticky, harpoon-like threads from structures called


Genetic variation in the ciliate Paramecium is the result of

haploid micronuclei are exchanged during conjugation

What type of organisms make up the "red tide"?


A person can become ill with malaria after

being bitten by an Anopheles mosquito

The majority of ciliates, sporozoans, and flagellated protozoans are characterized as

heterotrophic & unicellular (both C and D)

____ are a source of soft limestone formations of chalk.


The abundant stramenophiles that are most efficient at fixing carbon dioxide, and play a major role in global cycling of carbon are


Holdfasts, gas-filled floats, and a thick, leathery surface are found in species of

brown algae

Sources of a thickening, emulsifying agent found in ice cream, salad dressing, beer, toothpaste, cough syrup, and floor polish are the

brown algae

20. Red algae can live in deeper water because of their

dark red and blue pigments

Most freshwater algae belong to which phylum?


The photosynthetic protists that are thought to have given rise to the plants are

Green algae

Green algae and advanced land plants are similar in all EXCEPT which of the following characteristics?

Haploid dominant life cycles

Cellular slime molds can be distinguished from plasmodial slim molds on the basis of

nuclei per cell in the aggregated form

Four of the five organisms listed below are protists that form pseudopods. Select the exception.


The principal difference between a saprophytic and parasitic mode of nutrition is

determined by the source of the nutrients

Fungi are most closely related to _____, with who they share an amoeboid ancestor


Which of the following statements describes the value of fungi in the environment?

Fungi release elements from organic matter

The sexual life cycles are known for how many major groups of fungi?


Imperfect fungi are those that lack (or do not show)

sexual reproduction

The flagellate spores found in chytrids and microspordians indicate that

their fungal ancestors lived in aquatic environments

The body of a fungus is generally composed of


This fungal group includes species which cause

black bread mold

The club fungi are members of which of the following?


The structure labeled "A" in the figure above is a(an)


The structure that people typically refer to as a "mushroom" is in reality the


A fungal cell that contains two separate haploid nuclei is known as a

dikaryon (dikaryotic)

Rusts and smuts are

plant pathogens

The main method of asexual reproduction in yeasts is


Mycorrhizae are

fungus and tree root mutualistic associations

The development of a protective layer of _____ allowed organisms to survive above the surface of the water


The major difference between plants and fungi is that fungi

have a heterotrophic form of nutrition

Plants became erect, taller, and branched as a result of their ability to produce


Which of the following is true of phloem?

Connects leaves to roots & Transports plant-manufactured organic products ( Both B and D)

Plants need which of the following to carry on photosynthesis?

Water and carbon dioxide

Bryophytes are different from other land plants in that

they do not have roots and stems

Gametophytes are

haploid plants that produce gametes

Which bryophyte was used for bandages during World War I

peat moss

Which of the following statements concerning mosses is false?

Mosses have independent sporophytes

Which of the following weather conditions would you expect to have the greatest POSITIVE impact on sexual reproduction of ferns and mosses?

Continuing wet and rainy conditions

What group dominated the Carboniferous period and is now burned as coal?

Seedless vascular plants

Increasingly complex land plants developed as the _____, more resistant to cooler, drier, to unfavorable conditions, became dominant.


Four of the five organisms listed below do not have vascular tissue. Select the exception


Four of the five plants listed below are heterosporous. Select the exception


56. Which were the first organisms that did not require water for reproduction?


The largest phylum of gymnosperms includes the


The sport type that produces pollen is the


Seed ferns

early dominant seed-bearing plants that were replaced by gymnosperms


female reproductive parts that become the seed


spore type that develops inside ovules


spore type that produces pollen


arrival of pollen grains on female reproductive structure

The gymnosperm whose extract has been used for weight loss is


The _____ include Welwitschia in hot African deserts and Gnetum of humid tropical regions


The initial, rapid expansion of angiosperms late in the Mesozoic is related to their coevolution with


Angiosperms are more advanced than gymnosperms because gymnosperms lack which structure found in angiosperms?


The triploid tissue that results from double fertilization becomes the


The GGC gene

Codes for an enzyme that produces a toxin

All animals are classified as

None of the above

Bilateral symmetry means an animal has

A front and a back, with a leading and a trailing end

Which of the following organisms exhibits cephalization?

Sea anemone

A digestive tract is complete if it

Is surrounded by muscle

Which of the following is a body cavity that contains a lining that encloses organs, protecting and holding them in place?

The gastrodermis

Which of the following groups does NOT have either epithelial or connective tissues?


The currents of water (containing food) that pass through a sponge are created by

Collar cells, resembling choanoflagellates

Sponge gemmules

Capture food


Belongs to the Porifera

Trichoplax is classified as a


Which of the following phyla is characterized by radially symmetrical members?


Nematocysts are

The opening into the digestive cavity

The gastrodermis is

Part of the mesoglea

Bilateral symmetry is characteristic of


Flatworms are believed to have evolved from


On the evolutionary tree, the first phylum with organs was


Rotifers possess


Rotifers are about the same size as which of the following?


Chronic clogging of the lymphatic system by ___ results in a condition called elephantiasis.


The first phylum min which ALL members have a complete digestive system was


Which of the following worms is NOT related to the other four?


Worms with a well-developed, closed circulatory system (including five pairs of hearts) are:


Which annelid structure resembles the ancestral structure from which the vertebrate kidney evolved?


What is the first phylum to have an organ specifically for respiration (gills)?


Mollusks DO NOT include


The class of mollusks that includes snails, slugs, limpets, and nudibranchs is the


The mollusk group that includes the fastest, largest and smartest invertebrates is the


The animal phylum that contains the greatest number of known species is


A(n) ___ provides support and protection to arthropods.


What are the unique devices used by insects for respiration?


The term "Arthropod" means

Fleshy foot

Which of the following is NOT a chelicerate?


The majority of crustaceans live in

Marin habitats

___ are the most numerous animals in aquatic habitats; eaten by other invertebrates, fishes, and whales.


A flattened terrestrial arthropod predator with venom and usually one pair of lets per segment is a


The most successful class within the most biologically successful phylum is of the


A water-vascular system is characteristic of the phylum


Which of the following classes/phyla is NOT a protostome group?


Which of the following invertebrates is most closely related to the vertebrates?


What is the notochord used for?

As a respiratory structure

Chordate embryos display all but which of the following unique features?

Dorsal tubular nerve cords

During the life of a tunicate, the notochord

Develops during adulthood

Ostracoderms lost out in evolutionary competition to animals

With an exoskeleton

Which of the following sequences correctly represents vertebrate evolution?


Which of the following is NOT one of the trends of vertebrate evolution?

Nerve cord expanded into brain

Which of the following are craniates?


Internal bony jaws of vertebrates are believed to have been produced through the evolutionary modification of

Anterior gill support bars

The most diverse and successful group of vertebrates includes


The most numerous subclass of bony fishes are the


Chimeras and rays differ from the majority of fish in that they lack

Paired appendages

Sharks and rays also differ from most other fish in that they lack


In fishes ancestral to land vertebrates, pouches in the gut wall developed into

The notochord

Amphibians most likely evolved from


Amphibian adaptation to land include

More efficient circulatory system

Amphibians require either standing water or at least a moist habitat for


Four of the five animals below are in the same phyla. Select the exception.


Amniotes differ from earlier vertebrates by

Their three-chambered heart

The first group to exhibit an amniotic egg belonged to the


Reptiles regulate their body temperature

By having a thick layer of fat around most internal organs

The amniotic egg, also called the land egg, refers to the presence of

A membrane surrounding the embryo

Adaptations which aid birds in flight include

Enlarged sternum for muscle attachment

What membrane structure provides nourishment for developing mammalian embryos until the placenta forms?


A high metabolic rate is necessary in order for birds and mammals to regulate


Key specializations that occurred in the evolution of mammals include

All of these

Mammals are placed into three subclasses based on their method of

Embryonic development and care

Marsupials fill niches in Australia that are filled by placental mammals in other parts of the world because

They were introduced to Australia by accident and do not have any native competitors or predators

Which of the following statements concerning the placenta is incorrect?

It is entirely a maternal structure

The first known primates were characterized as


The position of the foramen magnum at the base of the skull enables researchers to determine if a primate

Stands upright

Fingers that can touch the thumb are


The location of the eyes on the front of the head in later primates ins especially important in

Predatory behavior

About 40,000 years ago, what kind of evolution replaced biological evolution in the shaping of modern humans?


The total number of individuals that contribute to the gene pool defines the populations


Changes in population size can be measured in terms of

immigration, births, emigration, deaths

A situation in which the birth rate plus immigration equals the death rate plus emigration is called

zero population growth

Which of the following results if reproduction occurs early in the life cycle?

Population growth rate increases

The number of individuals in a population that can be sustained indefinitely in an environment is known as

carrying capacity

A J-shaped growth curve is converted to an S-shaped one

when the limits imposed by carry capacity is reached

Four of the five factors listed below are density-independent factors. Select the exception

nutrient supply

A cohort is

a group of individuals of species of the same age.

Type II survivorship curves

indicate a fairly constant rate of death at all ages

Four of the five organisms listed below follow a type II survivorship curve. Select the exception


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