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27 terms

Ch 8 MM

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What does cDNA stand for?
Complementary DNA
Which of the following would be a useful phenotypic marker on a vector?
a. Reverse transcriptase
b. Antibiotic resistance gene
c. Restriction enzyme
d. Ligase
b. Antibiotic resistance gene
A plasmid unexpectedly converts to a linear form inside a cell. What will happen to it?
It will be degraded by cellular enzymes
What enzyme is used to make specific cuts in DNA molecules?
Restriction enzymes
What information is conveyed by the name of a restriction enzyme?
The strain of the bacterium in which it was discovered, the species of the bacterium in which it was discovered, and the order of its discovery compared to other restriction enzymes from that bacterium
The small size of a genetic vector is an advantage because __________.
Larger molecules would be too fragile to manipulate in the lab
How do restriction enzymes cut DNA sequences?
They cut DNA at sites, called recognition sites, that have specific nucleotide sequences.
In general, how might recombinant DNA technology be used to prevent a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in a single gene?
To insert a desirable gene, remove an undesirable gene, or replace a defective gene with a functioning gene
What attaches the target gene to a desired location?
DNA ligase
Why would a recombinant DNA molecule be inserted into a host cell?
It can be copied, transcribed, and translated into a desired protein
What is a Southern blot used for?
To locate DNA sequences of interest in a collection of DNA fragments
What is electroporation used for?
Inserting DNA into cells
Protoplasts are valuable in techniques that are used to insert DNA in cells because __________.
They have no cell wall to interfere with the entry of DNA into the cell
What is the function of the primers in PCR?
They provide a 3' end for the DNA polymerase
In which direction does DNA polymerase synthesize the new DNA strand?
5' to 3'
What provides the energy for DNA polymerization in a PCR reaction?
Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates
Why is DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus ideal for PCR?
It can withstand the high temperatures associated with PCR
What is the end goal of PCR?
To quickly increase the number of copies of a specific DNA sequence
Application uses PCR Y/N?
sequencing a gene
Yes
Application uses PCR Y/N?
Diagnosing a disease
Yes
Application uses PCR Y/N?
Providing enough DNA for cloning into another organism
Yes
If a scientist wanted to view the location of a particular species of bacterium within a biofilm, which technique could be used?
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)
Which of the following is NOT involved in the process of DNA fingerprinting?
a. using PCR to make multiple copies of a DNA sample
b. addition of fluorescent nucleotides to a DNA sample
c. gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments
d. cutting a DNA sample with restriction enzymes
b. addition of fluorescent nucleotides to a DNA sample
Four different fluorescent dyes are used in automated DNA sequencing because __________.
there are four different bases in DNA
CC: Keesha's treatment uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is used in recombinant DNA technology to ________________.
synthesize millions of copies of a DNA molecule
CC: The restriction enzyme EcoRI is used in recombinant DNA technology to _______________.
cut DNA at a specific palindromic sequence of N-bases.
CC: Vectors are used in recombinant DNA technology to ____________.
deliver a helpful gene into a recipient cell