91 terms

Praxis II: Principles of Learning and Teaching

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Terms in this set (...)

Albert Bandura
Social Learning Theory
Jerome Bruner
Constructivism and Discovery Learning
Social Learning Theory
Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others (Bandura)
Social Cognitive Theory
Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory
Enactive Learning
learned by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions (Bandura)
Vicarious Learning
learning by observing others (Bandura)
4 Elements of Observational Learning
Attention
Retention
Production
Motivation/Reinforcement
Discovery Learning
Encourages students to think for themselves and discover how knowledge is constructed- students construct knowledge on their own
John Dewey
Used Scientific Method as the proper way to think and as the most effective teaching method. Every learner attempts to explore and understand their environment
Jean Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development, Schemes, Equilibration
Organization
Ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories
(Piaget)
Schemes
mental systems of categories and experiences
(Piaget)
Adaptation
Adjustment to the environment
(Piaget)
Assimilation
Fitting new information into existing schemes
(Piaget)
Accommodation
Altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information
(Piaget)
Equilibration
Search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment.
(Piaget)
Operations
Actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions.
(Piaget)
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Sensorimotor
0-2 years, involves the senses and motor activities
Preoperational
2-7 years, stage before a child masters logical mental operations
Concrete Operational
7-11 years, mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations
Formal Operational
11-adult, mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables
Piaget's Points
Goal of ed to learn how to learn
Developmentally appropriate ed
construct our own understanding
value of play
Lev Vygotsky
Sociocultural theory
ZPD
Sociocultural Theory 1
Emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society
(Vygotsky)
Sociocultural Theory 2
Children learn the culture of their community through interactions
(Vygotsky)
ZPD
Phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support
(Vygotsky)
Scaffolding
Support for learning and problem solving. The support could be anything that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner
(Vygotsky)
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic
Musical
Spatial
Logical-Mathematical
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Naturalist
B.F. Skinner
Operant Conditioning-reinforcement
Operant Conditioning
A form of learning whereby a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement
Erik Erikson
8 Stages of Psychosocial Development
Developmental Crisis
Conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative
(Erikson)
Erikson's 8 Stages
Trust v. Mistrust
Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt
Initiative v. Guilt
Industry v. Inferiority
Identity v. role confusion
Intimacy v. Isolation
Generativity v. Stagnation
Ego Integrity v. Despair
Lawrence Kohlberg
Stages of Moral Reasoning
Moral Dilemmas
Situations in which no choice is clearly and indisputably right
(Kohlberg)
Preconventional Moral Reasoning
Level 1: judgement is based on own personal need and others' rules
(Kohlberg)
Conventional Moral Reasoning
Level 2: judgement is based on others; approval, family expectations, traditional values, laws of society, and loyalty to country
(Kohlberg)
Postconventional Moral Reasoning
Level 3:
Social contract and universal ethics
(Kohlberg)
Moral Reasoning
The thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong
(Kohlberg)
Carol Gilligan
Ethic of Care: a different sequence of moral development
Ethic of Care
Individuals move from a focus on self-interest to moral reasoning based on commitment to specific individuals and relationships, then to the highest level of morality based on the principles of responsibilities and care for all people.
Constructivism
Learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiences; knowledge may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality.
Metacognition
One's knowledge and beliefs about one's own cognitive processes, and one's resulting attempts to regulate those cognitive processes to maximize learning and memory.
Schema
An organized body of knowledge about a specific topic. Basic structures for organizing information and concepts
Transfer
A phenomenon whereby something that an individual has learned at one time affects how the individual learns or performs in a later situation. Influence of previously learned material on new material.
Bloom's Taxonomy
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Intrinsic Motivation
The internal desire to perform a particular task; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward.
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation promoted by factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed; motivation created by external factors: reward or punishment
Student Learning is Influenced by:
Individual experiences
Individual talents
Prior learning
Language
Culture
Family
Community Values
Correlational Relationship
The extent to which two variables are related to each other, such that when one increases, the other either increases or decreases in a predictable manner
Learned Helplessness
A general belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment.
Self-efficacy
Belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals.
(Bandura)
Reinforcement
Act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of that response.
(Skinner)
Positive Reinforcement
A consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
A consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than the presentation) of a stimulus.
Shaping
A process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations of a desired terminal behavior.
Extinction
C.C.: eventual disappearance of a conditioned response from stimulus being presented alone.
O.C.: the disappearance of a response that is no longer being reinforced.
Punishment
A consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows.
Continuous Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response every time it occurs
Intermittent Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response going unreinforced
Instructional Strategies
Major cognitive processes including:
Critical thinking
Creative thinking
Higher-order thinking
Inductive/Deductive thinking
Problem structuring/solving
Invention
Memorization/Recall
Categories of Instructional Strategies
Cooperative learning
Direct Instruction
Discovery Learning
Whole-group discussion
Independent study
Interdisciplinary instr.
Concept mapping
Inquiry Method
Questioning
Madeline Hunter
Direct Instruction: Effective Teaching Model
David Ausubel
Advance Organizers:
Mastery Learning
Demonstrations
Mnemonics
Note-taking
Outlining
Visual Aids
Student-Centered Models
Inquiry Model
Discovery Learning
Cooperative Learning
Collaborative Learning
Concept Models
Discussion Models
Laboratories
Project-based Learning
Simulations
Critical Thinking
Evaluating the accuracy and worth of information and arguments
Creative Thinking
New and original behavior yields an appropriate and productive result
High-Order Thinking
Thought that involves going beyond information specifically learned (application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation) BLOOM'S
Inductive Thinking
Formulating general principles based on knowledge of examples and details
Deductive Thinking
Drawing conclusions by applying rules of principles; logically moving from a general rule or principle to a specific solution
Inquiry Method
Approach in which the teacher presents a puzzling situation and students solve the problem by gathering data and testing their conclusions
Simulations
The idea that skills and knowledge are tied to simulation in which they were learned and difficult to apply in new settings
Mastery Learning
An approach to instruction whereby students learn one topic thoroughly before moving to a more difficult one.
Mnemonics
A special memory aid or trick designed to help students learn and remember a specific piece of information
Resources and Materials
Computers/Internet
AV tech
Local Experts
Primary docs and artifacts
Field Trips
Libraries
Service Learning
Standardized Tests
Tests given, usually nationwide, under uniform procedures
Norm-Referenced Tests
Assessment of students' achievement in relation to one another
Criterion-Referenced Tests
Testing in which scores are compared to a set performance standard
Achievement Tests
Standardized test measuring how much students have learned in a given content area.
Aptitude Tests
Tests meant to predict future performance
Performance Assessment
Assessment in which students demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a non-written fashion
Validity
The extend to which as assessment instrument actually measures what it is intended to measure
Reliability
The extend to which as assessment instrument yields consistent information about the knowledge, skills, and abilities one is trying to measure
Analytical Scoring
Scoring students' performance on an assessment by evaluating various aspects of their performance separately
Holistic Scoring
Summarizing students' performance on an assessment with a single score.
Rubrics
A list of components that performance on an assessment task should ideally include; used to guide the scoring of students' responses
Stanine
A standard score with a mean of 5 and a SD of 2; it is always reported as a whole number
Formative Evaluation
An evaluation conducted during instruction to facilitate students' learning
Summative Evaluation
An evaluation conducted after instruction is completed and used to assess students' final achievement
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