29 terms

Chapter One

Represents knowledge that has been gathered over time.
The act of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful orderly way.
A logical interpretation based on what scientists already know.
Scientific explanation for a set of observations that can be tested in ways that support or reject it.
Controlled Experiment
An experiment in which only one variable is changed. All other variables should be kept unchanged or controlled.
Independent Variable
The variable that is deliberately changed.
Dependent Variable
The variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable.
Control Group
A group that is exposed to the same conditions as the experimental group except for one independent Variable.
Detailed records of experimental observations.
Quantitative Data
Numbers obtained by counting or measuring.
Qualitative Data
Data that is descriptive and involve characteristics that cannot usually be counted or measured.
Experimental Data
Evidence to support, refute, or revise the hypotheses being tested, and to draw a valid conclusion.
Scientific Methodology
A body of techniques for investigating phenomena. The heart of science.
What scientific attitudes help generate new ideas?
Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and creativity.
Peer Review
When scientific papers are reviewed by anonymous, independent experts.
Why is peer review important?
Publishing peer-reviewed articles in scientific journals allows researchers to share ideas and to test and evaluate each others work.
A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations and hypotheses and that enables scientists to make accurate predictions about new situations.
What is the relationship between science and society?
Using science involves understanding its context in society and its limitations.
A particular preference or point of view that is personal rather than scientific.
The study of life
What characteristics to all living things share?
Living things are made up of basic units called cells, are based on a universal genetic code, obtain and use materials and energy, grow and develop, reproduce, respond to the environment, maintain a stable internal environment, and change over time.
Complex information needed to live, grow, and reproduce in a genetic code written in a molecule.
A signal to which an organism responds.
Sexual Reproduction
When cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism.
Asexual Reproduction
When a single organism produces offspring identical to itself.
When the internal environment of an organism remains relatively stable.
The combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials.
Organisms that are linked to one another and to the land, water and air around them.
How is the metric system imporant in science?
Most scientists use the metric system when collecting data and performing experiments.