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Bering Strait

what people crossed when migrating to the Americas; land bridge


The most advanced of the Amerindian peoples who lived in southern Mexico and Guatemala and created a high urban civilization in the pre-Columbian era.


Ancient civilization (1200-1521AD) that was located in what is present-day Mexico City


groups of related families that have a common identity and a real or legendary common ancestor


A mound builder society that was centered in the Ohio River Valley from about 200 B.C to AD 400

Pueblo people

These Indians lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn; also lived in stone cities


the last and most complex of the mound builder societies, inhabiting the Ohio and the Mississippi river valleys from about AD 700 into the 1500s.


right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son

Civic Humanism

The individual is responsible for applying his knowledge to promote individual virtue and public service

Niccolo Machiavelli

Statesmen and historian; wrote The Prince which held accounts of how politics and government really worked.

Prince Henry

Portuguese prince who started a school for sailors and sponsored early voyages of exploration


the reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state

Hernan Cortez

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)


Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages. (p. 472)


a person of mixed Spanish and native American ancestry

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices

John Calvin

Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibly of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)


idea that God determines man's salvation before birth


a member of a church descended from those that seceded from the Roman Catholic Church during 1500's


Protestant sect in England hoping to remove the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

Spanish Armada

"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.

Enclosure Act

Laws passed by Parliament "closing off" common lands to small farmers

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