Terms in this set (66)
What is primary data?
Information collected specifically for the investigation at hand.
What is secondary data?
Information not gathered for the investigation at hand but rather for some other purpose.
Internal secondary data
data collected by the company itself
External secondary data
is by outside entities such as federal and state governments, marketing research services, and academic researchers.
Why use secondary data?
-Problems of fit
-Problems of accuracy
is a comprehensive examination of available secondary information related to your research topic
Why are literature reviews important?
-Provide background and contextual information
-Clarify and define the research problem and questions
-Suggest hypotheses to investigate
-Identify scales to measure variables and research methodologies that have been used to study similar topics.
What secondary data sources should be used for a literature review?
-There is a wide variety of secondary data available from popular, scholarly, government, and commercial sources.
-Which secondary data is used can be determined using 6 criteria: purpose, accuracy, consistency, methodology, and bias.
Conducting a Literature Review (Purpose)
Most secondary data is collected for a different purpose. The researcher must determine how does this data relates to their own research question
Conducting a Literature Review (Accuracy)
Accuracy of the findings can be affected by what the research measures (if it is something different than what you measure), when the research was done, and the ability of the researchers.
Conducting a Literature Review (Consistency)
Consistency is the extent to which different secondary data sources provide information that is similar
Conducting a Literature Review (Credibility)
Technical competence, service quality, reputation, training, and expertise of personnel
Conducting a Literature Review (Methodology)
Using flawed methodological procedures can produce results that are invalid, unreliable, or non-generalizable. Important to evaluate sample size, sample description, response rate, the questionnaire, and the data collection procedure
Conducting a Literature Review (Bias)
Whether or not there is a hidden motivation or agenda underlying the research. Often, data is published to support the interests of commercial, political, or other interest groups
Internal sources of secondary data
The company's own internal information (sales, account, cost, consumer satisfaction surveys, etc).
External sources of secondary data
-Information that is external to the company
-Six major sources of external secondary data are popular sources, scholarly sources, government sources, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and commercial sources.
-Most popular articles are written for newspapers and magazines and use less technical language. -They usually involve secondhand reporting and are subject to less scrutiny.
May be accessed through the library by ABI/Inform or Lexus/Nexus.
Academic articles that can be accessed by Google Scholar
Federal and state governments are detailed, consistent, and complete
Research designs (Exploratory)
Discover insights and ideas to better understand the problem
Research designs (Descriptive)
Collect information that provides answers to research questions
Research designs (Causal)
Test cause-and-effect relationships between specifically defined marketing variables
is the collection of data in the form of text or images using open-ended questions, observation, or "found" data
Interviews where the interviewer asks the respondent a set of semi-structured, probing questions in a face-to-face settings
Focus group interviews
An interactive discussion involving a small group of people talking about a particular topic or concept
Focus Group Interviews
Typically consist of 8 to 12 participants who are guided by a professional moderator through a semi-structured discussion
Phase 1: Planning the focus group study
Before beginning, the researcher must understand the purpose of the study, the problem, and the data requirements
focus group moderator
is a well-trained individual who asks questions, stimulates discussion, and controls the direction of discussion over predetermined topics
is a detailed outline of topics and questions that will be used to generate the spontaneous interactive dialogue among group participants.
the moderator should introduce the first topic area to participants
closing the session
the moderator should encourage participants to give any final ideas or opinions about the topic
the research, client, and moderator compare notes and impressions of the discussion
the researcher systematically reviews the transcripts of participant responses and categorizes them into larger themes
seeks to understand how social and cultural influences affect peoples' behavior and experiences
use indirect questioning to encourage participants to freely project feelings and beliefs into a situation or stimulus provided by the researcher.
The Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET)
is a visual research technique based on projection that encourages participants to share emotions and subconscious reactions to a particular topic.
involves systematic observing and recording of behavioral patterns of objects, people, events, and other phenomena
Technology mediated observation
uses technology to capture human behavior, events, or marketing phenomena
A scanner-based panel
is a group of participating households that have a unique bar-coded card as an identification characteristic for inclusion in the research study.
Social media monitoring
is based on analyzing conversations on social media platforms
Foot traffic to our stores has decreased by 30% over the past year
Initial research question
Are consumers unsatisfied with the in-store experience
Specific research questions
How do customers rate the service performance of our employees?
How long do customers spend waiting in check out lines?
How difficult is it for customers to find the item they want?
are answers to the specific research questions.
are theoretical statements about relationships between variables
is the variable or construct that predicts or explains the outcome variable of interest.
is the variable or construct that researchers are seeking to explain
between two variables is when the two variables increase or decrease together
is when one variable increases and the other decreases, or vice versa
involves asking key informants to read the researcher's report to verify that the analysis is accurate
Step 1: Data Reduction
is the categorization and coding of data that is part of the theory development process in qualitative data analysis
involves placing portions of transcripts into similar groups based on their content
is a document that lists the different themes or categories for a particular study
can be words or numbers that refer to categories on the coding sheet
is the process of developing and refining theory and constructs by analyzing the differences and similarities in passages, themes, or types of participants
is the process of moving from the identification of themes and categories to the development of theory
involves selecting a category or theme to build a story around and integrating other categories into this story
involves working through the data several times in order to modify early ideas
negative case analysis
during iteration, or deliberately look for cases that contradict the theory they have been developing
involves counting the frequency of each category across transcripts.
Step 2: Data Display
is a visual summary of the qualitative data.
-A table explaining the central themes of the study.
-A diagram suggesting relationships between variables.
-A matrix including quotes for various themes from representative informants.
Step 3: Conclusion Drawing and Verification
The credibility of qualitative research is its level of rigor and believability
means that key members within a culture or subculture agree with the findings of the research report
means that text and images are similarly coded across multiple researchers.
involves addressing the analysis from multiple perspectives, including using multiple methods of data collection and analysis, multiple data sets, multiple researchers, multiple time periods, and different kinds of relevant research informants
is a process in which external qualitative methodology or topic area specialists are asked to review the research analysis