60 terms

UNIT 4 KEY TERMS

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Shogun
For 700 years, feudal Japan was under the rule of these Japanese military leaders
Scientific Revolution
Great European intellectual and cultural transformation that was based on the principles of the scientific method
Devshirme
System of the Ottomans in which Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Tokugwa
A powerful family in Japan that ruled as shoguns, 1603-1867, characterized by a samurai ruling class, urbanization, and the growth of a merchant class. Implemented isolationist policies to limit foreign influence in Japan
Suleiman the Magnificent
Ottoman ruler at the peak of power, increased size of the empire, tried to take over Vienna Austria
Galileo
Italian astronomer who worked on proving the theory of heliocentrism, convicted of heresy by the Catholic church
Newton
British physicist, formulated the theory of gravity, calculus, promoted the idea of the universe as a "machine"
Manchus
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties
Peter the great
Ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to Western Europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Humanism
A focus on humanity as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor, people can have an impact on and change the world
Great Dying
Term used to define the up to 90% of Native Americans who died after the Europeans discovered the New World
Wahab
Ottoman Turk who tried to "reform" Islam, inspired movement to purify the faith and government
Ottomans
Turkic empire established in Asia Minor and eventually extending through the Middle East and the Balkans; conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine empire
Songhay
Portion of the old kingdom of Mali around 1500; this empire controlled Timbuktu, Muslim empire
Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Potosí
Mine located in upper Peru; largest New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver
Shah Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology
Mughal
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the 16th and 17th centuries
Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation
Akbar
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration
95 Theses
Written by Martin Luther. Widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Used to display Luther's displeasure with the Catholic Church's sale of indulgences
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Absolutism
Concept of government practiced during the 17th century; monarchs held the right to direct their state however they saw fit
Yasak
Tribute paid in "soft gold" by Siberian hunters to the Russian government
Yongle
Ming emperor who sponsored voyages, reunified China, got rid of Mongol influences, and rebuilt Beijing
Deism
Belief in a supernatural creator of the universe but lack of interference in the lives of people, popular idea of the Enlightenment Age
Mercantilism
17th and 18th century an economic theory that holds that the prosperity of a nation is dependent upon its supply of capital (bullion), and that the government should promote policies (and exports) that strengthen the economic power of state
Imperialism
The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding companies and dependencies
Joint stock company
An association of individuals whose pooled resources provided them stock much like a corporation. Together they shared risks, losses and profits. Commonly used in trade/exploration ventures
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated Laissez Faire economics: private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790). He wrote Wealth of Nations
Forbidden city
Palace of the Chinese emperors, seperate from the people, built to awe and inspire
Siberia
A vast Asian region of Russia. Possesses significant amounts of natural resources like furs, timber, oil and minerals
Protestants
Any group that breaks from the Catholic Church (Lutherans, calvinists, Quakers, Anabaptists, etc)
Machiavelli
Humanist author of The Prince, better to be feared than loved, put the needs of the state first (the ends justifies the means)
Sugar
Most important export of the New World, majority of slave labor went into its production in Brazil and the Carribean
Jesuits
The society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius of Loyola, monastic group who focused on education and missionary work around the world
Voltaire
Prolific writer of the Enlightenment age, believed in religious tolerance, hated the Catholic church
Mulattoes
A person of mixed African and European descent
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the americas and the rest of the world after 1492
Mestizo
A person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
Enlightenment
A movement in 18th century Europe that advocated the use of reason, and questioning of long held ideas
Creoles
Descendants of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Renaissance
Cultural and political movement beginning in Italy around 1400; rested on expanding commerce; produced literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages
DaVinci
Renaissance artist, The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, used math and science to portray realism in art
British E Indies company
An early joint-stock company; were granted on English royal charter with the intention of favoring trade privileges in India
Zheng He
Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yongle between 1405 and 1423; demonstrated that the Chinese were capable of major ocean exploration
Syncretism
Religions, or strands within religions, that combine elements of two or more belief systems
Descartes
Enlightenment author and mathematician, separation of mind and matter, "Cogito Ergo Sum"
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around Southern Africa to the Indian ocean
Lateen sail
Triangular sail on a short mast whose adoption enabled safer, more reliable long distance travel by boat
Sikhism
Syncretic religion founded by Guru Nanak in northern India that blended Islamic and Hindu Beliefs
Safavid
The Shi'a Islamic dynasty that ruled in Persia between the 16th and 18th centuries
Mit'a
System of labor owed to the government in Andes region, started with Inca and extended to Spanish
John Locke
Enlightenment thinker that believed all people are born with the rights of life, liberty, and property. Government is to protect people's rights, and if it doesn't people can overthrow it
Cartaz
Portuguese "pass" to trade in the Indian Ocean, European attempt to control
Encomienda system
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Daimyo
Powerful military lord in feudal Japan
Middle passage
The route in between the western ports of Africa to the Carribean and southern US that carried the slave trade
Ming
Dynasty that ruled China from the mid 14th to the mid 17th century. Focused on rejuvenating Chinese culture after years of Mongol rule. Immense ocean trade voyages headed by Zheng He were launched and later abandoned under its rule