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Terms in this set (52)
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set.
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2,
during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development
during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs.
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
controls language expression—an area of the frontal lobe,
usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and
comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
general intelligence (g)
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify
different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score.
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental
ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically
corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological
attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
the extent to which a test
yields consistent results, as assessed by
the consistency of scores on two halves
of the test, or on retesting.
the extent to which a test
measures or predicts what it is supposed
the extent to which a
test samples the behavior that is of
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. (Also called criterion-related validity.)
(also called intellectual disability) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
a condition of
retardation and associated physical
disorders caused by an extra copy of
concern that one will be evaluated
based on a negative stereotype.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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