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Terms in this set (64)

1. Once teach, one observe:
-one teacher present the instruction to the entire class while the second educator circulates, gathering info on a specific pupil, a small group of students, or targeted behaviors across the whole class such as productive use of free time.
-one teacher takes the instructional lead
-one teacher collects data on one or more students
-important to exchange roles periodically

2. One teach, one support:
-both individuals are present, but one teacher takes the instructional lead while the other provides support and assistance to the student
-lesson divided into two or more segments
-lesson presented in different locations in the classroom
-one teacher presents one portion while another teacher presents a different portion
-the groups rotate, but the teacher does not
-effective at all grade levels

3. Station teaching:
-the lesson is divided into two or more segments and presented in different locations in the classroom One teacher presents one portion of the lesson while the other teacher provides a different portion, the groups rotate, and the teachers repeat their info to new group of pupils
-lesson divided into tow or more segmants
-lesson presented in different locations in the classroom
-one teacher presents one portion while another teacher presents a different portion
-the groups rotate but teachers do not

4. Parallel teaching:
-instruction is planned jointly but is delivered by each teacher to half of the heterogeneous group of learners
-following joint planning, each teacher delivers the same lesson to 1/2 of the HETEROGENOUS groups
-coordination is crucial
-lower teacher-pupil ratio
-excellent for drill and practice activities, and closely supervised projects

5. Alternative teaching:
-one teacher provides instruction to a larger group while the other teacher interacts with the smaller group of pupils
-good for students who benefit from small-group instruction
-appropriate for enrichment activities, in-depth studies, and remediation
-children with disabilities are not exclusively and routinely assigned to the smaller groups

6. Team teaching:
-both teachers share the instructional activities equally
-ex: one teacher might discuss WWII while the other teacher gives several examples illustrating the concept
-interactive where the teachers share the instructional activities equally
-team teachers take turns teaching
-requires professional trust and high levels of commitment
1. Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE): all children, regardless of the severity of their disability (a zero reject philosophy) must be provided with an education appropriate to their unique needs at no cost to the parent(s)/guardian(s). included is the concept of related services which requires that students receive services as necessary in order to benefit from special education ex: occupational therapy

2. Individualized Education Plan (IEP): a written detailed plan developed by a team for each pupil aged 3-21 who receives a special education; a management tool. a collaborative team process involving parents, teacher, and professionals
-developed in conjunction with the parent(s)/guardian(s), is an individually tailored statement describing an education plan for each learner with exceptionalities.
-required to address the present level of academic functioning, and annual goals, annual goals and accompanying instructional objectives, educational services to be provided, the degree to which the pupil will be able to participate in general education programs, plan for initiating services and length of service delivery, and an annual evaluation procedure specifying objective criteria to determine if instructional objectives are being met.

3. Nondiscriminatory Assessment: prior to placement, a child must be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team in all areas of suspected disability by tests that are not racially, culturally, or linguistically biased. students are to receive several types of assessments, administered by trained personnel; a single evaluation procedure is not permitted for either planning or placement purposes

4. Procedural due process: the act affords parent(s)/guardian(s) several safeguards as it pertains to their child's education. Briefly, parent(s)/guardian(s) have the right to confidentiality of records; to examine all records; to obtain an independent evaluation; to receive written notification of proposed changes to their child's educational classification or placement; and to an impartial hearing whenever disagreements arise regarding educational plans for their son/daughter. parents/guardians have a right to representation by legal counsel

5. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): children with disabilities are to be educated to the maximum extent appropriate, with students without disabilities. Placements must be consistent with pupil's educational needs

6. Parental Participation: PL 94-142 mandates meaningful parent involvement. Sometimes referred to as the Parents Law, the legislation requires the parents participate fully in the decision making process that affects their child's education
• Autism: significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

• Deaf-blindness:hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

• Deafness:means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification

•Developmental delay:means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

•Emotional disturbance: inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual sensory or health factors, inability to build or maintain interpersonal relationships, inappropriate types of behavior or feelings, etc.

•Hearing impairments (including deafness): means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating

•Intellectual disability:means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period

•Multiple disabilities:means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program

•Orthopedic impairments: means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance

•Other health impairments: means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness,

•Specific learning disabilities: means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.

•Speech or language impairments: means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment

•Traumatic brain injury:means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both,

•Visual impairments including blindness:means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
Language: a code used to communicate ideas via a conventional system of arbitrary signals
-rule based method of communication

1. phonology: the sound system of a language, including the use of sounds to create meaningful syllables and words.
-The sounds characteristic of a language, the rules governing their distribution and sequencing, and the stress and intonation patterns that accompany sounds
-receptive: discrimination of speech sounds
-expressive: articulation of sounds

2. morphology: dictates how the smallest meaningful units of our language (morphemes) are combined to form words
-The rules governing how words are formed from the basic element of meaning
-receptive: understanding of the words
-expressive: use of grammar in words

3. Semantics: A psycholinguistic system that involves word meanings and word relationships and their use in communication.
-The linguistic realization of what the speaker knows about the world-the meanings of words and sentences
-receptive: understanding of word meanings and word relationships
-expressive: use of word meanings and word relationshps

4. syntax:A series of linguistic rules that determine word order and combinations to form sentences and how such word order is used in the communication process.
-Rules for how to string words together to form phrases and sentences-the relationships among the elements of a sentence
-receptive: understanding of phrases and sentences
-expressive: use of grammar in phrases and sentences

5. Pragmatics: A sociolinguistic system involving the use of communication skills in social contexts
-The social effectiveness of language in achieving desired functions-rules related to the use of language in social contexts
-receptive: understanding of social and contextual cues
-expressive: use of language to affect others
Speech Disorders:
1.Articulation disorders: error in production of sound. (most common)
-ex: omission (han for hand), substitutions (wabbit for rabbit), additions (footsball for football), an distortions (shlip for sip)
2. Fluency Disorders:difficulties with rhythm and timing of speech
-ex: stuttering (A type of fluency disorder in which word sounds are repeated.), cluttering ( A type of fluency disorder involving cognitive, linguistic, pragmatic, speech, and motor abilities.)
3. Voice disorders:quality of voice is affected
-ex: abnormal production and or absences of vocal quality,, pitch, loudness, resonance, and or duration which is inappropriate for an individual's age/sex

Language Disorders:
1. Phonological disorders: Difficulties organizing speech sounds into recognizable patterns
2. Apraxia of speech: both a speech and language disorder Inability to control the muscles and thoughts that produce speech. A speech and language disorder composed of both a speech disorder, caused by oral-motor difficulty, and a language disorder, characterized by the resultant limitations of expression.
3. Morphological disorders: Adding morphemes incorrectly to words
4. Semantic disorders: Poor understanding of word meanings, difficulty finding correct words to use
5. Syntactical deficits: Difficulty with word order and sentence structure
6. Pragmatic Difficulties: Problems understanding and using language in different social contexts

CAPD: (difficulty processing sounds)
-Students with CAPD have difficulty processing (using and interpreting) sounds. CAPD occurs when the ear and brain do not work smoothly together to interpret sounds.