123 terms

Conservation of Natural Resources

Exam 1 Terms

Terms in this set (...)

Conservation of Natural Resources
Opposite of waste, proper use and protection of materials, allows resources to be available for future generations.
Keeping things in a stable state; setting aside.
Natural Resource
Useful to people but independent of human activity. Materials and energy supplied by the environment. Anything derived from the natural environment that is of value, wealth, or available means. Something we can't make or produce, renewable or nonrenewable.
Closed System
Open System
Goal for future economic development and growth. Use of resources at a rate greater than they can be renewed and the release of pollutants at a rate no greater than they can be absorbed. Eventually you will run out of resources.
circumstances, objects, conditions by which one is surrounded. Physical, chemical, and basic factors that act on an organism
Source of supply, wealth, or revenue; available means.
To avoid wasteful or destructive use, keep in a sound state. Wise use and careful management of resources to attain the maximum possible benefits.
Absolute Needs
Food/nutrients, water, temperature range, air. Value/price attached to all except air.
Cultural Needs
Needs required to sustain society in terms of economics, technology, etc...
Economic Values
We attach a function of the total sum of the cultural values.
(4) Factors that shape Environmental Perception
Cultural factors, social structure, economy, technology.
Resource Factors
Distribution/geography of resources, relative concentration of resources (relative to technological and economic limits), availability dynamics (how availability of resoruces changes over times), absolute abundance or scarcity, potential substitute ability of other resources.
Natural resources as management system
Appraisal, exploitation, and allocation.
Looking at economic value to culture.
How we acquire, use, and dispose of the resource; including environmental impacts.
Who has access to the resource and how do they get access?
Meeting Resource Needs
Resource range, resource mix, resources and reserves, and resource base.
Resource range
What segment of the earth contains a given resource.
Resource mix
What resources occur within a segment of the earth.
Resource and reserves
Can be profitably exploited under current technology, market price, and social circumstance.
Resource base
Quantity less defined in size that might not currently be exploitable, but could become exploitable in the future.
Colonists (1600-1800)
Persecuted seeking religious freedom, entrepreneurs seeking free natural resources, and landless peasants seeking a better life.
18th Century French economic theory that land and it's products are the only true source of wealth; trade and property security are essential to prosperity.
Fee Simple
Most extensive tenure allowed under the feudal system; owner can sell or convey by will; closest as you can get to absolute ownership in common law.
Public Trust Doctrine
Common law doctrine; legal right of public to use certain lands and waters; can be concurrent with private ownership; vested in each state as Trustee of lands; tidal, navigable waters, and lands beneath.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1648; low watermark to no more than 100 roads past high watermark; fishing, navigation, and fowling (wetlands/beach).
Plymouth Colony
1626; Regulates cutting and sale of timber on colony lands.
Massachusetts Bay
1691; Forest reserve regulations, 1710; Water fowl and 1718; deer hunting.
Whiskey Rebellion
1791 excise tax on whiskey.
Year that decision that government would control natural resources.
Frontier Values (1800-1900)
Self reliance, independence, rugged individualism, social and economic values, alodial rights, manifest destiny.
Social and economic values
Adam Smith; foundations for free market economy.
Alodial Rights
rights of individuals to loan and use property; rights to use and own property. Many states required land ownership for citizenship.
Manifest Destiny
Used to explain and justify continental expansion of the U.S.
Thomas Jefferson's Dream for Agrarian Society
Louisiana Purchase, Lewis and Clark expeditions, Northwest Ordinance (1787; rules for property ownership, township, and range.
Frontier Period Problems
Urban, industrial society and vast areas of government, owned land and resources in West.
Establishment of General Land Office
1812; Natural Resource Legislation, sale of land, accounted for 41% of public land disposal at $1.25 an acre.
General Purpose Grants
1841; Natural Resource Legislation, Land to states to support state governments.
Homestead Act
Natural Resource Legislation, 80 acres to anyone willing to settle land, 27% public lands disposed, 1877→extension of act.
1862 Civil War (Lincoln outlaws slavery, passed in congress without southern states present, strengthened resource base of union, prohibit anyone from confederate states to participate in land grab.)
Homestead Act, Pacific Railroad Act, & Land Grant College Act are all linked by what?
Pacific Railroad Act
1862; 13% land along railroad right of ways.
Land Grant College Act
1862; gave land for establishment of public universities/colleges; 12% land given to states.
Timber and Store Act
1878; $2.50 per acre in 160 acre blocks (western timberlands).
What percent of land did the government own in the Western US?
Nevada (83%), Utah (63%), California (46%)
What 3 states have the most public land?
Sagebrush Rebellion
1980s; Federal land policy and management act (1967) all public lands kept in perpetual trust; President Carter set aside 37.8 million acres for national parks and protected reserves.
Mining Law
1872; mineral/subsurface verses surface rights.
What year did Yellowstone become the first national park?
George Catlin
(1796-1872) Painter in West; 1st person to propose setting aside large areas of west; germ of the national parks idea.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
(Essay on Nature) & Henry Thorough (Walden) writers; wilderness preservation and love of nature.
George Perkins Marsh
1864; "Man and Nature" essay saying people should live in harmony with the environment.
Carl Shurz
(1829-1909) German immigrant to U.S.; Secretary of Interior (1877-1881), first system to protect forests at national scale.
Bernard Furnow
(1851-1923)German immigrant, trained in forestry; first Chief of Forestry Division.
Forest Reserve Act
1891; Keep some forested land under federal ownership, 17.5 million acres by 1893.
Forest Reserve Organic Administration Act
1847; expanded Forest Reserve Act, set up management, allowed timber harvesting.
John Wesley Powell
1834-1902; Western expeditions to investigate arid lands; founded US Geological Survey.
Reclamation Act of 1902
Authorizes Secretary of Interior to develop hydropower and irrigation in 17 western states.
Age of Environmental Reawakening (Period of Progressive Reforms)
What is the period 1900-1930 referred to as?
1900-1930 (Age of Environmental Reawakening)
Limits to countries resources, US population growth doubling every 30 years, urbanization/industrialization, & environmental disasters became apparent in what years?
(Examples of) Environmental Disasters
Winter 1889-1890; blizzard led to cattle kill, commercial clear-cutting of eastern forests, & September 1, 1914: Martha, last passenger pigeon died.
John Muir
(1838-1914) Preservationist/aesthetic conservationist; founded Sierra Club in 1892, supported national park system.
Gifford Pinchot
(1865-1946) 2nd Chief of Forestry Division; Father of Conservation; effective and efficient use of resources, resources should be developed for here and now, "wilderness is waste", taming of nature→supported eradication of grizzly bears and wolves, equity in allocation.
Transfer Act
1905; moves forests from department of interior (main goal was preservation) to department of agriculture (goals changes to wise scientific use); 1907 changes name to National Forest Service.
Theodore Roosevelt
(1858-1919) First conservation minded president, 1903 - 1st National Wildlife Refuge (Pelican Islands, FL), King's Canyon & Sequoia National Parks, 95 million acres forest reserves with Organic Administration Act (1897), 1908 established National Conservation Commission w/Pinchot as chair, American Antiquities Act in 1906 - sets up president declaring national monuments, September 24,1906 - first president to use act to protect Devil's Tower.
Lacy Act
1900; (McKinley) 1st national wildlife protection law, interstate trade in illegally acquired game.
What year was the biological Survey?
Weeks Act
1911; authorized federal government to purchase private lands in east along headwater and navigable streams for watershed protection.
National Park Service
1916; created under National Park Service Organic Act, Department of Interior.
1st National Wilderness Area
1924; Gila Bend, New Mexico
Clark McNary Act
1924; National Fire Suspension Law (important, more problems now because ecology depends on fire in some areas more than stopping fires).
What years were involved in Conservation for Economic Recovery?
Conservation for Economic Recovery Context
Great Stock Market Crash (1929), WW1 ended in 1919 which resulted in decade in 20's focus on individual from public perspective, lucky go happy, 7 year drought: Dust Bowl.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Which president initiated the New Deal?
New Deal
Social legislation including child labor laws, social security act, fair labor standards act, FDIC banking laws. Short term Conservation initiates came about to give people jobs. development and use of natural resources for stimulating economy which expanded role and power of federal government in resource management in terms of both private and federal lands.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
over 2,600 CCC camps in west; program where government would pay people to plant forests, improve infrastructure, create recreational facilities, and work on forest & watershed restoration.
US Army core of Engineers
1815; Roosevelt changed mission for dam construction (traditionally maritime control), • uses General Dam Act to being hydroelectric projects including Passamaquody, Maine, Bonnevile Dam, Columbia river, and Fort Peck Dam, Missouri River.
Flood Control Act
1936; enhanced role of Corp in flood control. In 1944; cemented role of corps in dam construction and flood control. Hocking River example.
Antiquities Act declared by Obama
March 23, 2013; Scenic beauty and historical sites, San Juan Islands, Rio Grande del Norte, Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad, First State (5 sites in Delaware), Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers Home.
Aldo Leopold
(1887-1948) Yale Forestry School Graduate, originally follower of Pinchot (views change over time), Land Ethic in San County Almanac, founder of restoration ecology: restore ecology back to areas that's have been exploited.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
1933; stimulate economy in Appalachians, >20 dam construction projects, assumed land use control over entire watersheds, 1st river basin planning, 1950s→coal burning power plants, coal mines, uranium mining, nuclear energy production.
TVA & Tellico Dam vs. Snail Darter
First big test of Endangered Species Act.
Soil Conservation Service (Soil Erosion Service)
In the 1930s there was soil loss caused by the drought/Dust Bowl. Now known as Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS).
Kincaid Act
1902; Northwest Nebraska, 640 acres to anyone who would settle it, arid sound hills region.
Enlarged Homestead Act
1909; Expansion on old Homestead Act; 320 acres in Western states to anyone willing to settle them, marginal lands.
Problems causing Dust Bowl
Poor farming techniques employed and poor understanding of ecology of area, can't grow food.
H.H. Bennett
worked with farmers and ranchers to help reduce soil erosion, educational programs, & planted shelter belts (Roosevelt Forests).
Rural Electrification Act
1936 only about 10% rural Americas had electricity.
Taylor Grazing Act
1934; prior to this act federal land open to grazing and in some cases wood harvesting; management plan included limiting number of animals, charged fees.
Birth of Range Management
Created Bureau of land management within department of interior (Taylor Grazing Act).
Post War Boom
WWII brings about scientific development and resource depletion. Attitude: conservation ethic? Science and industry won war; better living through chemistry, and little environmental legislation → idea that industry would police itself.
Green Revolution
Known as second agricultural revolution, beginning of modern industrialized agriculture in the mid 1940s. Scientific crop breeding, inorganic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, technologies exported to address issues of global hunger, begin Rockeffeter Foundation in 1944; Mexico went from over half imports wheat self sufficient '56 to exporting half million tons in '64.
Norman Borland
1970; Won Nobel Peace Prize for exporting Green Revolution to other countries.
Problems of Green Revolution
Political and social issues not addressed.
What were the years of the Environmental Reawakening?
Rachel Carson
Silent Spring (1962), DDT poisoning in the environment.
Stewart Udall
The Quiet Crisis (1963), secretary of interior under Kennedy, open space encroachment.
Baby Boom
Put strain on resource base, neglect and deterioration in environment including: air quality, water (death of lake Eerie), nuclear testing, and threat of nuclear war.
NY Killing Smog
1963; Approximately 300 deaths/birth of smog in LA.
London Killing Smog
1952; Approximately 2000 deaths.
Cougaough River Fire
1969; Cleaveland.
Offshore Oil Leak
1969; Near Santa Barbara, CA.
Barry Commoner
Science and Survival (1966).
Population Bomb (1968).
Commoner Laws of Ecology
Everything is connected to everything else. Everything must go somewhere. Nature knows best. No such thing as a free lunch (cost to everything).
Gaylord Nelson
April 22, 1970; Created legislation for first Earth Day.
Clean Air Act
(1963, amended in 1970, 1977, and 1990)
Wilderness Act
1964; establish a national wilderness preservation system for the permanent good of the whole people.
(NEPA) National Environmental Policy Act
(1969) Signed in 1970, instituted by Nixon, first comprehensive statement on total environmental policy in US.
Environmental Impact Statement
Created by NEPA, first time proactive thinking was involved with environment.
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
amended in 1964 and rewritten in 1972 and re-passed as Clean Water Act.
Coastal Zone Management Act
1972; 1996 changes to Coastal Zone Protection Act covering coastal management.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
Program for conservation of threatened and endangered animals, plants, and habitats in US.
Safe Drinking Water Act
1974; required compliance with health related standards.
Toxic Substances Control Act
1976; industrial chemicals being used.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
1976; gives EPA authority to control hazardous waste.
Some additional legislation, but mostly amendments, some new acts. Pull and Push mentality: extremes in political views.
Clinton Era
Pragmatic Conservation or extremism debate. Roadless Initiative: no new roads built on federal land and national forests. Antiquities Act: Esculante National Monument.
Bush Era
Clear Skies Initiative: attempt to repeal restrictions of Clean Air Act. Attempt to repeal Roadless Initiatives so loggers can get through area in Alaska.
Healthy Forest Act (Bush Era)
Result of wildfires in western US, opened up forests to logging as a means of preventing fires.
Obama Era
"Politics not passion". Rejection of Key Stone Pipeline - seen as win for preservationist's side. Grey wolf removed as endangered species in several states, allowed hunting/killing. Domestic crude oil production is at its highest level. Domestic Natural gas production has had high increases. Less reliance on international resources or can be seen as taking more resources from earth. Stimulus funding: invested more than $90 billion in clean energy initiatives. Largest investment in clean energy in US history.
Executive Order (EO) 13514
Federal sustainability under Obama. Public lands opened to solar projects for first time.