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Chapter 9: Biodiversity
Terms in this set (43)
Members of the sex with less energetic investment in reproduction:
Will compete among themselves for access to the higher-investing sex
The mating pair is in a species whose reproduction includes all of the following except:
Both sexes equally choosy when selecting a mate
Which of the following modes of communication are seen among animals?
Chemical, visual, and acoustical
Which of the following are correct statements about fixed action patterns?
-Fixed action patterns are highly stereotyped, instinctive behaviors.
-Fixed action patterns are triggered by stimuli in the environment.
-Fixed action patterns can be triggered by an inappropriate stimulus.
-Once begun, fixed action patterns are continued to completion.
The theory of kin selection holds that an altruistic-appearing individual maximizes its own "inclusive fitness" by helping other individuals with whom it shares genetic material. In which of the following species is such altruistic-appearing behavior most likely to evolve?
honey bees, which live in a hive of mostly sisters from the same mother queen bee.
All of the following are necessary conditions for reciprocal altruism to evolve in a species EXCEPT:
at least one of the sexes must not disperse, so that some individuals live near their kin.
Sexual dimorphism is a good predictor of mating systems because:
the degree of sexual dimorphism and the type of mating system present in a species are both determined by the difference in parental investment between the male and female; therefore when one is known the other can be inferred.
You discover a new species of bird in which the females have bright, extravagant plumage while the males are very small and drab. What predictions CAN'T you make about this new species?
The males must be providing the larger gamete.
Why is it so much easier for an infant to learn a complex language than for a college student to learn biology?
-Language is a feature with great evolutionary relevance for humans.
-Learning biology was not a behavior with evolutionary relevance for humans.
In a polyandrous mating system:
variance in female reproductive success is greater than variance in male reproductive success.
In a situation in which males guard eggs and care for the young without help from the female, which of the following statements is most likely TRUE?
Females are more brightly colored than males and court males aggressively.
Which of the following is an example of kin selection?
In the Australian social spider, shortly after giving birth to about fifty spiderlings, the mother's body slowly liquefies into a nutritious fluid that the newborns consume.
In the figure above, the animal colored blue in the box represents:
the only low-ranking male elephant seal to produce offspring
Polygyny is often positively correlated with:
sexual dimorphism and variation in male reproductive success.
Because group selection _____________________________, it very rarely occurs.
decreases the reproductive success of individuals
The graph above shows data on reproductive output in fruit flies. How would you expect the reproductive output of males with one mate to relate to that of females with one mate?
It should be the same.
Young herring gulls peck on a red spot on their mother's beak in order to get her to feed them. If the mother's red spot is covered experimentally with paint, the chicks won't peck. This begging behavior is:
-an innate behavior.
-a fixed action pattern.
Nearly every type of canine, including dogs of both genders, walks in a tight circle before lying down. This circling behavior occurs wherever the dog is, including on a kitchen or concrete floor. How might this behavior have evolved?
Circling in nature may better prepare a "bed" and serve as a check for predators
Which of the following would NOT reduce parental uncertainty?
males challenging each other to duels
A young goose, which sees only a human in the first several days after birth, will follow that human around as if it were its mother. What behavioral concept best describes this?
Which of the following is TRUE about group selection?
It leads to unselfish behavior that benefits the population or species
In polyandryous mating system:
Individual females mate with multiple males
A signal that cannot be faked and carries accurate information about a situation or individual is known as an ____________ signal.
Selfishness should be seen more often between unrelated individuals unless: 1) there are repeated opportunities to be a donor or recipient, 2) the cost to be a donor is relatively low, and 3):
Cheaters are recognized and punished for cheating
In polygynous mating system:
There is usually greater variation in reproductive success among males than females
Evolution would tend to favor:
greater clarity and unambiguous communication
A goose sees an egg outside of its nest. Which of the following potential responses by the goose is a fixed action pattern?
The goose uses as side-to-side motion to bring the egg back, and even if the egg is taken away during the process, continues using that motion back to the nest
Inclusive fitness is:
The sum of an individual's indirect and direct fitness
Sexual monomorphism refers to:
The situation in which males and females are physically and behaviorally similar
Which of the following is an examples of feeding behavior that has a high energy intake-to-effort ratio?
Crabs eating mussels that are intermediate in size
All of the following are necessary conditions for reciprocal altruism to evolve in a species except:
at least one of the sexes must not disperse, so some individuals live near their kin
relative to birds, more mammalian species are:
Polygynous and sexually dimorphic
Which of the following is NOT typically a form of animal communication?
increased heart rate and metabolic rate
Which of the following is NOT likely to be an innate behavior?
Birds avoid eating distinctively-colored monarch butterflies because they taste bad
Bush cricket males are to cricket females as ___________ is to ______________
more discriminating ; less discriminating
Which of the following is NOT considered a maladaptive behavior?
All of the above are maladaptive behaviors (anachronphobia, anarchy ideas, smoking)
What is the key difference between kin selection and group selection?
Relatedness. Kin selection is altruism that helps to increase a relatives fitness and consequently the individuals own fitness. Group selection is a process where an individual's detrimental behavior is beneficial to the population.
Which of the following explanations BEST supports the following statement: "Humans and other animals don't consciously try to maximize their reproductive success, but their behaviors would suggest otherwise."
An animal that experiences pleasure when it has sex has the incentive to seek out additional opportunities to experience that pleasure, without seeking a reproductive outcome
Total reproductive output:
increases for males as the number of females he is able to fertilizes increases
Under what conditions would an allele increase in a population?
If the allele leads to deceptive behavior that increases individual fitness
Which of the following explanations best supports the idea that males are more sexually willing than females?
Males are only more sexually willing than females in situations where the female has greater energetic investment in reproduction; however, there are many situations where the female is more sexually willing and even courts the male due to his greater investment in reproduction.
Which of the following best supports the following statement: "Many behaviors in the animal kingdom that appear truly altruistic (unselfish behavior with absolutely no benefit) are really not so"?
-Natural selection works to produce selfish behavior.
-The Australian social spider gives birth to about 50 hungry spiderlings, then the mother's body liquefies and provides nourishment for the offspring.
-Someone carries allele R, which helps individuals with whom they are not related, increasing their fitness and decreasing yours in the process.
-You carry allele K, which causes you to behave in a way that increases the fitness of a close relative of yours, while decreasing your own fitness.
Which of the following best explains the age-old idea that a male should court and/or compete for a female?
For males to be most successful, in terms of reproduction, they need to find and gain access to mating opportunities with additional females.
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