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Epidemiology Test 1
Terms in this set (75)
Disease/condition regularly found in a population.
Population at Risk
Members of population capable of developing disease/condition.
Occurrence in community, cases of disease or condition in excess of normal expectancy.
Epidemic occurring worldwide, or over a wide area; several countries or continents
- Concerned with distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations.
- Belief that diseases/ill health is NOT randomly distributed in a population
Focus of Epidemiology
Occurrence of health and illness in population.
Occurrence of disease or conditions varies in a population; some subgroups affected more than others.
- Collective or individual risk factor; causally related to health condition, outcome, or other defined characteristic.
- Search for associations between exposures and health outcomes
Contact with disease-causing factor.
All possible results that may stem from exposure to causal factor.
Occurrences of illnesses due to specific disease or health condition in a population.
Occurrences of death in a specific population.
Epidemiologic studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population.
Person: demographic characteristics
Place: geographic location
Time: week, month, year, decade, etc
What does person, place, and time have to do with descriptive epidemiology?
- Examines causal hypotheses regarding the association between exposure and health conditions.
- Proposes and evaluates causal models for etiologic associations and studies them empirically.
Naturally occurring events in which subsets of the population have different levels of exposure to a hypothesized causal factor.
- Wrote document: recorded descriptive characteristics of birth & death data (including seasonal variations, infant mortality, male/female mortality).
- First to employ quantitative methods to describe population vital statistics; organized mortality data into table.
What did John Graunt (1620-1674) contribute to epidemiology?
Edward Jenner (1749-1823) discovered what?
- Father: Groundbreaking contributions.
- Discovered transmission of cholera via water (outbreak in London).
+Power of observation
+Use spot maps and data tables
+Recommend public health measure to stop cholera.
Why was John Snow considered the father of epidemiology and what were his contributions to the discipline?
- Made connections between vaginal exams during labor and uterine infections after delivery.
- Promoted handwashing to stop disease and was successful!
How did Ignaz Semmelweis contribute to infection control?
- Collected mortality & morbidity statistics during Crimean war.
- Used to show that preventable deaths more common than war wounds.
- Improved hygienic standards in field hospitals and London hospitals.
Florence Nightingale was a nurse and theologian but what were her contributions to epidemiology?
- Comparisons between women with breast cancer and those without cancer
- Identified risk factors for breast cancer.
What did Janet Lany-Claypon do for epidemiology and women's health?
- Community Health use = diagnose health of community.
- Health Services use = study working of health services.
- Risk Assessment use = estimate individual's risk of disease, accident, or defect.
- Disease Causality use = search for causes of health and disease.
Name at least four current uses of epidemiology.
No numerical values or rankings; measured on categorical scale (occupation, marital status, sex). No natural ordering.
Reported as numerical quantities; quantity, amount, range (height).
Finite or countable number of values (number children in family, number missing teeth).
Infinite number of possible values along continuum (weight).
Household size, number doctor visits.
Age, height, weight, heart rate, blood cholesterol, blood sugar.
- Not ordered.
- (Race, religion, "yes/no" answers)
- Data can be ordered.
- Unequal intervals between points on scale (self-perception of health, levels of education, socioeconomic status, occupational prestige)
- Continuous data with equal intervals between points on scale.
- No true zero (temperature, IQ- can't say a person with IQ of 120 is twice as smart as person with IQ of 60)
- Similar to interval, but does have absolute zero.
- (kelvin temperature has zero- when zero there is absence of all heat so 100 degrees is twice as hot as 50 degrees)
Frequency cases for discrete variable.
Frequency distributions for continuous variables.
Number occurring most frequently in set or distribution of numbers.
Middle point of set of numbers; rank smallest to largest.
Average of set of numbers.
Difference between highest and lowest value of group of numbers.
Symmetrical distribution of values; mean, mode, median identical and fall in middle of distribution.
Asymmetric; values to left or right of x-axis.
- Graph plotting distribution of cases by time of onset.
- Uses: aids in identifying a disease outbreak.
Complete inverse relationship (when one value increases; other decreases).
Strong inverse relationship.
Weak inverse relationship.
No association between the values.
Weak positive association.
Strong positive association.
Very strong positive association.
Graphic display of relationships between variables.
- Plot of dose-response relationship, correlative association between an exposure and effect.
- Uses: assess causal effect of suspected exposure associated with adverse health outcome.
Table that tabulates data according to two dimensions; to demonstrate associations.
Exposure + disease.
Exposure, no disease.
No exposure, + disease.
No exposure, no disease.
New cases of disease/condition.
Number of existing cases within a population.
All cases (new and old) of disease/condition at a specific point in time. Cases of a disease/condition at a specified point in time (longer than point prevalence)/
All cases of disease/condition throughout a lifespan.
Formula: P= id (prevalence = incidence x duration
Formula of Incidence and Prevalence.
Crude Death Rate
Unmodified; no consideration for demographic make up
Numerator: number of deaths; denominator: reference population.
Age Specific Death Rate
Number of cases or deaths per age group.
Cause Specific Death Rate
Mortality due to a specific cause of death.
Sex Specific Death Rate
Mortality among either males or females.
Includes maternal deaths that result from causes associated with pregnancy and childbirth.
Vast electronic storehouses of information that include internet search transactions, social media activities, data from health insurance programs, and electronic medical records. Epidemiologists combine data to gain new insights into morbidity and mortality.
Gather/explore large troves of data to discern previously unrecognized patterns and associations.
Velocity- data streams at unprecedented speed.
Variety- all formats; structured to unstructured.
Volume- data collected from many sources.
The Three V's
What types of data are included in vital events (vital statistics)?
Public Health Surveillance
Systematic and continuous gathering of information about the occurrence of diseases and other health phenomena.
Communicable, infectious diseases
Risk factors for chronic disease
Give at least two examples of categories of information collected for public health surveillance.
Require health care providers to report certain diseases.
Providers are mandated reporters- notify local and/or state health department officials
Who does the reporting
To whom is the report made
- Is a centralized database for collection of information about a disease.
- Many conditions, including cancer are tracked using case registries
- Used to select cases for case-control studies
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