Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Human A & P, Lab SC Prof. S. Herrick Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, 11th ed. Cat, ISBN: 9780321822192

Groups of cells that are anatomically similar and share a function are
a. organ systems
b. organisms
c. organs
d. tissues

a. organ systems
b. organisms
c. organs
*d. tissues

How many primary tissue types are found in the human body?


T or F: Endocrine and exocrine glands are classified as epithelium because they develop from epithelial membranes.


Epithelial tissues can be classified according to cell shape. ___________ epithelial cells are scale like and flattened
a. columnar
b. cuboidal
c. squamous
d. transitional

a. columnar
b. cuboidal
*c. squamous
d. transitional

All connective tissue is derived from an embryonic tissue known as
a. cartilage
b. ground substance
c. mesenchyme
d. reticular

a. cartilage
b. ground substance
*c. mesenchyme
d. reticular

Which is not an example of connective tissue?
a. bones
b. ligaments
c. neurons
d. tendons

a. bones
b. ligaments
*c. neurons
d. tendons

T or F: Blood is a type of connective tissue


Of the two major cell types found in nervous tissue [neurons | neuroglial cells] are highly specialized to generate and conduct electrical signals.


How many basic types of muscle tissue exist?

cardiac, smooth, skeletal

This type of muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs. It has no striations and its cells are spindle shaped.
a. cardiac
b. skeletal
c. smooth

a. cardiac
b. skeletal
*c. smooth


groups of cells similar in structure & function


multiple tissues together performing a biological function


study of tissues

epithelial tissue

sheet of cells covering a body surface, whether internal or external

epithelial tissue distinguishing characteristics

specialized contacts
supported by connective tissue
avascular but innervated

epithelial polarity

apical surface
the side that is free

basal surface
the side that is bound

epithelial classifications

by strata
simple or stratified
single layer or >1 layer

by shape
-nonciliated: digestive tract stomach->anus, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
-ciliated: bronchi, uterine tubes, parts of uterus
--stratified: male urethra, large ducts of some glands

-kidney tubules, ducts & secretory portions of small glands, ovarian surface
--stratified: largest ducts of sweat, mammary & salivary glands

squamous (scale-like)
-simple: kidney glomeruli, lung's air sacs, linings of heart, blood & lymph vessels, lining of ventral body cavity
--nonkeratinized: moist linings of esophagus, mouth, vagina
--keratinized: epidermis

appears stratified, but isn't
-nonciliated: sperm-carrying ducts, ducts of large glands
-cilitated: trachea, upper respiratory tract

stratified squamous epithelial tissue that enables the cells to stretch over one another so that an organ can expand & contract
-ureters, urinary bladder, part of urethra

basement membrane

amorphous material secreted partly by epithelial cells & connective tissue cells that lie next to each other

support & adhere epithelial cells

endocrine glands

ductless glands
secrete hormones into blood or lymphatic vessels that weave through the gland

exocrine glands

empty secretions through their ducts
to body surface or into body cavities
sweat, oil, sebum, liver, pancreas

connective tissue

protect, support, bind other tissues of the body

types of connective tissue




connective tissue proper
-areolar, adipose, reticular, dense

connective tissue characteristics

rich supply of blood vessels
(except cartilage, tendons, ligaments)

comprised of many cell types

large proportion of matrix to cells

connective tissue extracellular matrix

produced by cells then extruded
responsible for its strength
some types have more matrix than cells

comprised of ground substance & fibers

CT ECM ground substance

interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, proteoglycans

ranges from liquid, semisolid, gel-like, very hard

functions as medium through which nutrients diffuse between capillaries & cell

CT ECM fibers

reside in lacunae

collagen (white) - most abundant
elastic (yellow)
reticular (fine collagen)

hinder diffusion by making ground substance less pliable


embryonic tissue from which all connective tissue is derived

loose connective tissue, areolar

matrix: gel-like
fibers: all types
cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some WBC

wraps & cushions organs, phagocytize bacteria, holds & conveys tissue fluid

under epithelia of body, packaging organs, surrounding capillaries

loose connective tissue, adipose

matrix as in areolar but sparse
cells: fat droplet displaces nucleus

reserve fuel, insulation, support & protect organs

under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, visceral, breasts

loose connective tissue, reticular

matrix: reticular fibers in typical loose ground substance
cells: reticular, lie on network

stroma: soft internal skeleton to support other cell types incl. WBC, mast cells, macrophages

lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen

dense connective tissue, dense regular

matrix: primarily collagen fibers, few elastic
cell type: mostly fibroblast

attach muscles and bones, withstand tensile stress in 1 direction

tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses

dense connective tissue, elastic

matrix: like dense regular, with high proportion of elastic

recoil of tissue after stretch, pulsatile flow of blood in arteries, passive recoil of lungs

large arterial walls, some vertebral ligaments, bronchial tube walls

dense connective tissue, dense irregular

matrix: irregular collagen fibers, some elastic
cell: fibroblast

withstand tension in many directions, structural strength

fibrous capsule of organs & joints, dermis, digestive submucosa


matrix: amorphous, firm collagen fiber network


secrete cartilage matrix


mature cartilage cells residing in lacunae

cartilage types

support & reinforce, cushion, resist compression
embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx

greatest flexibility while maintaining shape
external ear, epiglottis

thick collagen fibers predominate
tensile streength, absorb compressive shock
interertebral discs, public symphesis, discs of knee

osseous tissue

matrix: hard, calcified
fibers: collagen
cells: osteocytes in lacunae, osteoblasts lay down matrix

support, protect, levers for movement, storage of Ca, minerals, fat, hematopoiesis in marrow

found in bones


matrix: plasma, a fluid
cells: R & W BC's of various types

transport of respiratory gases, wastes, nutrients, other

blood vessels

nervous tissue comprised of

highly specialized cells that are excitable & conductive

support for neurons
protect, support, insulate

neuron structure characteristic

cytoplasm drawn into long cell processes

muscle tissue

highly specialized to contract
produces body movement

skeletal muscle

voluntary control
acts on bones for movement, posture
cells are multinucleate

cardiac muscle

only in heart
branching uninucleate cells interdigitating and intercalated discs

smooth muscle

found in layers in walls of hollow organs
usually 2 layers at right angles

contraction can
constrict or dilate organ lumen
propel substances

no striations
involuntary control

Apical surface has dome-shaped cells (flattened cells may also be mixed in)

Multiple cell layers present

transitional epithelium

found in
linings of ureters, urinary bladder, part of urethra

Cells are mostly columnar
Not all cells reach the apical surface
Nuclei are located at different levels
Cilia are located at the apical surface

psuedostratified columnar epithelium

found in
lining of trachea & upper respiratory tract

Apical surface has flattened cells with very little cytoplasm

Cells not layered

simple squamous epithelium

found in kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, serosae of ventral body cavity

Apical surface has square cells with a round nucleus

Cells are not layered

simple cuboidal epithelium

found in kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface

large round cells are densely packed
nucleus pushed to one side

adipose tissue

found in

Lacunae present
Lacunae not arranged in a concentric circle
No visible fibers in matrix

Hyaline cartilage

found in
ends of long bones, costal cartilage, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx, embryonic skeleton

Fibers and cells are loosely packed with visible space between fibers

Fibers overlap but do not form a network

areolar connective tissue

found in
lamina propria of mucous membranes, packages organs, surrounds capillaries

Extracellular fibers run parallel to each other
Nuclei of fibroblasts visible

Dense regular connective tissue

found in
tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses

Lacunae sparsely distributed
Lacunae not arranged in concentric circle
Fibers visible and fairly organized


found in
intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joint

Tapered cells with darkly stained nucleus centrally located
No striations
Cells layered to form a sheet

Smooth Muscle

found in
walls of blood vessels and other hollow organs

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording