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55 terms

BIOL252 03: Chpt 6 Classification of Tissues

Human A & P, Lab SC Prof. S. Herrick Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, 11th ed. Cat, ISBN: 9780321822192
STUDY
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Groups of cells that are anatomically similar and share a function are
a. organ systems
b. organisms
c. organs
d. tissues
a. organ systems
b. organisms
c. organs
*d. tissues
How many primary tissue types are found in the human body?
4
epithelial
connective
muscular
neural
T or F: Endocrine and exocrine glands are classified as epithelium because they develop from epithelial membranes.
True
Epithelial tissues can be classified according to cell shape. ___________ epithelial cells are scale like and flattened
a. columnar
b. cuboidal
c. squamous
d. transitional
a. columnar
b. cuboidal
*c. squamous
d. transitional
All connective tissue is derived from an embryonic tissue known as
a. cartilage
b. ground substance
c. mesenchyme
d. reticular
a. cartilage
b. ground substance
*c. mesenchyme
d. reticular
Which is not an example of connective tissue?
a. bones
b. ligaments
c. neurons
d. tendons
a. bones
b. ligaments
*c. neurons
d. tendons
T or F: Blood is a type of connective tissue
True
Of the two major cell types found in nervous tissue [neurons | neuroglial cells] are highly specialized to generate and conduct electrical signals.
neurons
How many basic types of muscle tissue exist?
3
cardiac, smooth, skeletal
This type of muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs. It has no striations and its cells are spindle shaped.
a. cardiac
b. skeletal
c. smooth
a. cardiac
b. skeletal
*c. smooth
Tissue
groups of cells similar in structure & function
organs
multiple tissues together performing a biological function
histology
study of tissues
epithelial tissue
sheet of cells covering a body surface, whether internal or external
epithelial tissue distinguishing characteristics
polarity
specialized contacts
supported by connective tissue
avascular but innervated
regeneratability
epithelial polarity
apical surface
the side that is free

basal surface
the side that is bound
epithelial classifications
by strata
simple or stratified
single layer or >1 layer

by shape
columnar
-nonciliated: digestive tract stomach->anus, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
-ciliated: bronchi, uterine tubes, parts of uterus
--stratified: male urethra, large ducts of some glands

cuboidal
-kidney tubules, ducts & secretory portions of small glands, ovarian surface
--stratified: largest ducts of sweat, mammary & salivary glands

squamous (scale-like)
-simple: kidney glomeruli, lung's air sacs, linings of heart, blood & lymph vessels, lining of ventral body cavity
-stratified:
--nonkeratinized: moist linings of esophagus, mouth, vagina
--keratinized: epidermis

pseudostratified
appears stratified, but isn't
-nonciliated: sperm-carrying ducts, ducts of large glands
-cilitated: trachea, upper respiratory tract

transitional
stratified squamous epithelial tissue that enables the cells to stretch over one another so that an organ can expand & contract
-ureters, urinary bladder, part of urethra
basement membrane
amorphous material secreted partly by epithelial cells & connective tissue cells that lie next to each other

support & adhere epithelial cells
endocrine glands
ductless glands
secrete hormones into blood or lymphatic vessels that weave through the gland
exocrine glands
empty secretions through their ducts
to body surface or into body cavities
sweat, oil, sebum, liver, pancreas
connective tissue
protect, support, bind other tissues of the body
types of connective tissue
osseous

hematopoietic

cartilage

connective tissue proper
-areolar, adipose, reticular, dense
connective tissue characteristics
rich supply of blood vessels
(except cartilage, tendons, ligaments)

comprised of many cell types

large proportion of matrix to cells
connective tissue extracellular matrix
produced by cells then extruded
responsible for its strength
some types have more matrix than cells

comprised of ground substance & fibers
CT ECM ground substance
interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, proteoglycans

ranges from liquid, semisolid, gel-like, very hard

functions as medium through which nutrients diffuse between capillaries & cell
CT ECM fibers
reside in lacunae

collagen (white) - most abundant
elastic (yellow)
reticular (fine collagen)

hinder diffusion by making ground substance less pliable
mesenchyme
embryonic tissue from which all connective tissue is derived
loose connective tissue, areolar
matrix: gel-like
fibers: all types
cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some WBC

wraps & cushions organs, phagocytize bacteria, holds & conveys tissue fluid

found
under epithelia of body, packaging organs, surrounding capillaries
loose connective tissue, adipose
matrix as in areolar but sparse
cells: fat droplet displaces nucleus

reserve fuel, insulation, support & protect organs

found
under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, visceral, breasts
loose connective tissue, reticular
matrix: reticular fibers in typical loose ground substance
cells: reticular, lie on network

stroma: soft internal skeleton to support other cell types incl. WBC, mast cells, macrophages

found
lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen
dense connective tissue, dense regular
matrix: primarily collagen fibers, few elastic
cell type: mostly fibroblast

attach muscles and bones, withstand tensile stress in 1 direction

found
tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses
dense connective tissue, elastic
matrix: like dense regular, with high proportion of elastic

recoil of tissue after stretch, pulsatile flow of blood in arteries, passive recoil of lungs

found
large arterial walls, some vertebral ligaments, bronchial tube walls
dense connective tissue, dense irregular
matrix: irregular collagen fibers, some elastic
cell: fibroblast

withstand tension in many directions, structural strength

found
fibrous capsule of organs & joints, dermis, digestive submucosa
cartilage
matrix: amorphous, firm collagen fiber network
chondroblasts
secrete cartilage matrix
chondrocytes
mature cartilage cells residing in lacunae
cartilage types
hyaline
support & reinforce, cushion, resist compression
embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx

elastic
greatest flexibility while maintaining shape
external ear, epiglottis

fibrocartilage
thick collagen fibers predominate
tensile streength, absorb compressive shock
interertebral discs, public symphesis, discs of knee
osseous tissue
matrix: hard, calcified
fibers: collagen
cells: osteocytes in lacunae, osteoblasts lay down matrix

support, protect, levers for movement, storage of Ca, minerals, fat, hematopoiesis in marrow

found in bones
blood
matrix: plasma, a fluid
cells: R & W BC's of various types

transport of respiratory gases, wastes, nutrients, other

found
blood vessels
nervous tissue comprised of
neurons
highly specialized cells that are excitable & conductive

neuroglia
support for neurons
protect, support, insulate
neuron structure characteristic
cytoplasm drawn into long cell processes
muscle tissue
highly specialized to contract
produces body movement
skeletal muscle
voluntary control
acts on bones for movement, posture
cells are multinucleate
striated
cardiac muscle
only in heart
striated
branching uninucleate cells interdigitating and intercalated discs
involuntary
smooth muscle
found in layers in walls of hollow organs
usually 2 layers at right angles

contraction can
constrict or dilate organ lumen
propel substances

no striations
spindle-shaped
involuntary control
Apical surface has dome-shaped cells (flattened cells may also be mixed in)

Multiple cell layers present
transitional epithelium

found in
linings of ureters, urinary bladder, part of urethra
Cells are mostly columnar
Not all cells reach the apical surface
Nuclei are located at different levels
Cilia are located at the apical surface
psuedostratified columnar epithelium

found in
lining of trachea & upper respiratory tract
Apical surface has flattened cells with very little cytoplasm

Cells not layered
simple squamous epithelium

found in kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, serosae of ventral body cavity
Apical surface has square cells with a round nucleus

Cells are not layered
simple cuboidal epithelium

found in kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface
large round cells are densely packed
nucleus pushed to one side
adipose tissue

found in
fat
Lacunae present
Lacunae not arranged in a concentric circle
No visible fibers in matrix
Hyaline cartilage

found in
ends of long bones, costal cartilage, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx, embryonic skeleton
Fibers and cells are loosely packed with visible space between fibers

Fibers overlap but do not form a network
areolar connective tissue

found in
lamina propria of mucous membranes, packages organs, surrounds capillaries
Extracellular fibers run parallel to each other
Nuclei of fibroblasts visible
Dense regular connective tissue

found in
tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
Lacunae sparsely distributed
Lacunae not arranged in concentric circle
Fibers visible and fairly organized
Fibrocartilage

found in
intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joint
Tapered cells with darkly stained nucleus centrally located
No striations
Cells layered to form a sheet
Smooth Muscle

found in
walls of blood vessels and other hollow organs