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Terms in this set (23)
- Breaks down nutrients so that it can be absorbed by the body.
What is the digestive system?
1. Ingests food
2. Breaks down food so nutrients can be absorbed
3. Eliminates what can't be digested
What are the three main functions of the digestive system?
- Chewing food to break it down into smaller pieces.
What is mechanical digestion?
- Breakdown of large molecules in food into smaller substances by enzymes.
What is chemical digestion?
Proteins that speed up biological reactions.
What are enzymes?
Amylase (an enzyme in saliva) begins the process of chemical digestion by breaking down starches into sugars.
What is the start of chemical digestion?
The esophagus connects the throat to the stomach.
What is the esophagus?
Wave-like muscle contractions that move the food throughout the digestive system.
What is peristalsis?
The small plate of cartilage called the epiglottis covers the trachea.
What happens when a person swallows?
When an opening is not closed, food can enter the trachea and cause a person to choke.
This causes the cough reflex in an attempt to keep the food away from lungs.
What causes a person to choke?
Food passes through a muscle called sphincter and then moves to the stomach.
What happens when the food leaves the esophagus?
They start to break down the food and start to mix with secretion of glands that line the inner walls of the stomach.
What happens when the muscles contract in the stomach?
Glands that are released in the stomach that lowers the pH to 2.
What are gastric glands?
Pepsin is an enzyme involved in the process of chemical digestion in proteins.
What is pepsin?
It passes through the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine.
What happens after it goes into the stomach?
Chemical digestion is completed and most nutrients from food are absorbed into the small intestine into the bloodstream through fingerlike structures called villi.
What happens in the small intestine?
Increases surface area of small intestines.
What are villis?
The remaining food, now in semiliquid form, called chyme moves into the large intestine.
What happens when digestion is done?
Chyme is made up of material that cannot be digested or absorbed by the villi.
What is chyme?
End portion of the digestive system.
What happens in the large intestine?
Colon, rectum, and appendix.
What are the three organs in the large intestine?
Beneficial bacteria such as Vitamin K and B are stored here.
Its job is to absorb water from the chyme.
Indigestable material become more solid and is called feces.
What happens in the colon?
Peristalsis continue to move the feces toward the rectum, causing the rectum walls to stretch.
Feces are eliminated from the body through the anus.
What happens in the rectum?
Recommended textbook explanations
Anatomy & Physiology Student Workbook
Kent Pryor, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood
The Human Body in Health & Disease
Gary A. Thibodeau, Kevin T. Patton
Human Anatomy And Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn
Anatomy and Physiology
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