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psychology ch 3 and 4
Terms in this set (32)
is the process by which we receive transform, and process stimuli that impinge on our sensory organs into neural impulses, or signals, that the brain uses to create experiences of vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and so on.
the process by which the brain integrates, organizes, and interprets sensory, impressions to create representations of the world
the process by which sensory receptors adapt to constant stimuli by becoming less sensitive to them.
occupies only a small portion of the full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation different wavelengths within visible spectrum give rise to the experience of different colors.
photoreceptors that are sensitive only to the intensity of light and dark
photoreceptors that are sensitive to color
the light sensitive layer of the inner surface of the eye that contains photoreceptors cells
the structure in the eye that focuses light rays on the retina
the pigmented, circular muscle in the eye that regulates the size of the pupil to adjust to changes in the level of illumination
the snail shaped organ in the inner ear that contains sensory receptors for hearing
the tendency for perceptions to be influenced by ones expectations or preconceptions
specialized cells that detect sensory stimuli and convert them into neural impulses.
the principle that the amount of change in the stimulus needed to detect a difference is given by a constant ratio or fraction, called the constant of the original stimulus
process by which the lens changes its shape to focus images more clearly on the retina
young-Helmholtz theory ;believed that young's experiment results showed that the eyes have three types of colors receptors, red blue and violet.
opponent process theory
suggests that the eyes have three types of color receptors and each type of receptor consists of a pair of opposing receptors.
emotional memory stimulation
Several studies have demonstrated increased left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activity during negative and depressed mood. These mood states have also been associated with reduced memory for positive emotional stimuli
the sense that keeps us informed about movement of the parts of the body and their position in relation to each other
helps synchronize the bodies sleep, wake cycle by making us feel sleepy
is among the most common cause of motor vehicle accidents, slows reaction times; impairs concentrations, memory, and problem, solving ability and makes it more difficulty to retain newly info.
Somnambulism-sleep walking, Somniloquy-sleep talking, sleep terrors, and nightmares
caused by many factors, including substance abuse, physical illness and psychological disorders like depression difficulty falling asleep, remaining asleep, or returning to sleep after a nightmare
disorder characterized by sudden unexplained "sleep attacks" during the day
Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep
sleep disorder involving a pattern of frequent, disturbing nightmares
sleep terror disorder
sleep disorder involving repeated episodes of intense fear during sleep, causing the person to awake abruptly in a terrified state.
sleep disorder characterized by repeated episodes of sleepwalking
an altered state of consciousness characterized by focused attention, deep relaxation, and heightened susceptibility to suggestion
a theory of hypnosis based on the belief that hypnosis represents a state of divided consciousness.
weakness, executive control, automatic involuntary response
alters mood, alters perception, alters thought processes, dopamine, neurotransmitter blocking
a cluster of symptoms associated with abrupt withdrawal from a drug
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