29 terms

Cells

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eukaryote
A cell characterized by the presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be unicellular (protists) or multicellular (fungi, plants and animals).
prokaryote
cells that DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles.
Cell Theory
States that:
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
3. Living cells come only from other living cells.
Cell
Basic unit and structure of life. It is the smallest unit of living organisms.
plant cell
Eukaryotic cells that have CELL WALLS, a large cental vacuole, and are capable of making their own food.
animal cell
Cells that do not have cell walls and cannot make their own food.
cell wall
A rigid structure that surrounds plant cell membrane and provides support to plant cells.
cell membrane
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell. Think of a fence with gates keeping things in and out.
cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
nucleus
Control center of the cell, contains genetic material, DNA, and, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities.
nuclear envelope (nuclear membrane)
Double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus. Again, like a fence with gates controlling who comes and goes.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A system of passages that are found in a cell's cytoplasm that assists in the production, processing, and TRANSPORT of proteins and in the production of lipids. There are two types, smooth, and rough depending on the presence ribosomes. Think of it as the cell,s interstate system.
ribosomes
Organelle that is made in the nucleolus and produces and assembles proteins. Can be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum to make rough ER or can float freely in the cytoplasm. Think of protein producing factories.
golgi body
A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell. Tink of it as the cells post office...recieving and shipping things to where they need to go.
mitochondria
the site of cellular respiration, powerhouse of the cell; uses oxygen to break down organic molecules and synthesize ATP, it's energy factory for cell
vacuoles
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. This is the storage barn or warehouse of the cell.
lysosomes
A small, round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones. The recycling center of the cell.
chloroplasts
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food. Solar panels of plant cells.
organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell. Tiny organ.
cellulose
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
chromatin
genetic material composed of strands of DNA and proteins that condenses to form chromosomes during eukaryotic cell division. It is located in the nucleus of our cells.
chromosomes
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome is formed from condensed chromatin during cell division.
nucleolus
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and is the site where ribosomes are made.
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work made in the mitochondria
chlorophyll
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
tissue
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
cellular respiration
The process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells, releasing energy as ATP
bacteria
single-celled, microspopic, prokaryote, lacks a nucleus and nuclear membrane
flagella
Whip like tails found in one-celled organisms and cells to aid in movement, ex bacteria, sperm, eurglena, and paramecium
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