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Human Relationships IB Psychology

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(8.1) Pro-social behavior
behavior that benefits another person or has positive social consequences
(8.1) Helping Behavior
behavior that benefits or intentionally helps another person
(8.1) Altruism
When one helps another person for no reward and even at some cost to oneself
-Biological altruism: Evolutionary Psychology
Psychological altruism: Cognitive Psychology
(8.1) Kin selection theory
Predict that the degree of altruism depends on the number of genes shared by individuals. The closer the relationship the greater chance of altruistic behavior
(8.1) Dawkins (1976)
-Selfish gene theory
-argues that there is an innate drive for the survival and propagation of one's own genes
-"inclusive fitness"
-seen as a way to guarantee the survival of genes
-theory does not explain why smaller amounts of people help complete strangers
(8.1) Reciprocal altruism theory
Trivers (1971)
-the theory is an attempt to explain the evolution of altruism among individuals who are not related
-postulates that it may benefit an animal to behave altruistically if there is an expectation that the favor will be returned
-through mutual cooperation there will their chance of survival
(8.1) Axelrod and Hamiltion
-Prisoner's Dilemma
Where individuals can choose to cooperate or defect
(8.1) Thomas Hobbes (1586-1679)
Political theorist, whose social contract theory has inspired politics and economics, argued that it must be taken into account that people are motivated be self-interest
-believed that uncontrolled pursuit of self-interest would result in chaos and that the governments have the responsibility of preventing this chaos
(8.1) Lerner and Lichtman (1968)
-carried out an experiment where participants were assigned to work in pairs for each pair one of the participants was the Confederate that was playing a role working in conjunction with the researcher.
Participants were told that one of them would be a learner who would receive electrical shocks and the other would be control.
Participants were told that the number they drew from a hat would be random but in fact they were not and the confederate always received the role of learner.
(8.1) Negative-State relief model
Schaller and Cialdini (1988)
-argues that egoistic motives lead us to help others in bad circumstances in order to reduce the distress we experience from watching the bad situation
-though this theory appears to explain some behavior, feelings of distress do not always lead people to action
-this model does not accurately predict how one will behave-either altruistically or selfishly- in any situation.
(8.1) Empathy-Altruism model
Batson (1981)
-suggest that people can experience two types of emotions when they see someone suffering
-Personal distress (anxiety/fear) which leads to egoistic helping
-Empathetic concern (sympathy/compassion) which leads to altruistic behavior
(8.1) Batson (1981)
Carol study
-varied amounts of empathy among students
(8.1) Stel and Vonk (2004)
showed that participants become more empathetic when imitating other people's facial expression
(8.1) Von Baaren et al (2004)
Imitation promotes helping
-Lab experiment
-non verbal synchronization
-researchers found that participants whose gestures were imitated helped the confederate to a greater extent than when the confederate dropped pens
-promotes pro social behavior
(8.1) Bateson and Darley (1973)
-Field experiment
-40 students were asked to participate in a study of religious education
-1st session: personality questionnaire concerning religiosity was administered
-2nd session: the participant received instruction in one campus building and was then sent to a second building to give a presentation
-IV: whether they were told to hurry
-DV: to what extent the seminarians stopped to help
Results: 40% helped
situational vs dispositional factors
(8.1) Bystanderism
not helping someone in need of help
-Latane and Darley
-Kitty G
(8.1) Kitty Genovese
Stabbed to death by serial rapist and murderer
-took place for 30 min
-38 neighbors watched from window as she attempted to escape and did not call the police
(8.1) Factors that determine whether people will help or not
-Diffusion of responsibility
(reasoning that someone else can help)
-Pluralistic ignorance
(8.1) Pluralistic ignorance
when in a group, people often look to others to know how to react
-informational social influence
-Latane and Darley (1969)
(8.1) Social exchange theory
-Cost vs Benefits
-claims that human relationships are based on subjective cost-benefit analysis
(8.1) Arousal-Cost-Reward model (1969, 1981)
-Piliavin
-emphasizes the interaction of mood and cognition in determining behavior
-arousal is the emotional response to the need or distress of others
-Arousal= motivational factor
-the cost-reward factor should be seen in terms of assessing possible cost and rewards associated with helping or not helping
(8.1) Shotland and Straw (1976)
-field experiment
-staged attack by a man on a woman
-65% tried prevention
-19% intervened when they thought it was a martial dispute
-social norms-
(8.1) Beaman (1978) and Staub (1983)
-research indicated that social norms play an important role in pro-social behavior
(8.1) Whiting (1979), Graves and Graves (1985)
Cross-cultural research on pro-social behavior has shown that culture does play a role in one's likelihood to help in some situations
(8.1) Katz (1981), Bond and Leung (1988)
social identity theory explains why and explains how we determine whether to help someone or not
(8.2) Steinhauser (1995)
Married people report being happier and healthier than those who are single
(8.2) Kiecolt (1987)
compared with people in troubled marriages, those who are happily married have immune systems that ward off inflections more effectively
(8.2) Berkman et al (1992)
the chances of surviving for more than one year alter after heart attack are more than twice as high among elderly men and women who can can count on two or more people for emotional support than among those who do not have such support
(8.2) Steven Cole (2007)
Chronic loneliness increased gene activity linked to inflammation and reduced gene activity liked to antibody associated diseases
(8.2) close relationships
relationship involving strong and frequent interdependence in many domains of life
(8.2) Interdependence
partner's thoughts influences self
(8.2) Aron and Henkemyer (1995)
researched that passionate love tends to decrease over time and while women are more satisfied with marriage if they do not
Triangular Theory of Love
The triangular theory of love explains the topic of love in an interpersonal relationship.
-Robert Sternberg's theory describes types of love based
on three different scales: intimacy, passion, and commitment. It is important to recognize that a relationship based on a single element is less likely to survive than one based on two or more.
Fischer (2004)
argued that the symptoms exhibited in human romantic passion indicate that dopamine, serotonin, and adrenaline all play an important role
Origins of attraction: BLA
Marazatti et al (1999)-serotonin
Fischer et al (2003)-fMRI
Bowlby (1969)
Suggested that humans have an innate attachment system which consist of specific behavior and physiological responses called attachment behaviors.
Oxytocin
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor helps prolaction
-released among men and women during sex
-"love hormone"
Vasopressin
-hormone important in males' attachment and mating behavior
Evolutionary Explanation studies
Buss (1996)
-jealousy may be biologicaly based
Low (1990)
-correlation between number of parasites and degree of polygyny
Schackelford and Watson (1987)
-found that men with less symmetrical faces were less physically attractive
Wedekind (1995)
-MHC Genes and sweaty t-shirt study
Origins of attraction: CLA
Byrne (1971)
-argues that other people's support for one's own views and attitudes is rewarding because it validates one's opinions and boosts self esteem
Morry (2007)
-suggests the attraction similarity model
Markey et al (2007)
-results showed that the way the young described themselves was similar to their ideal partner
Davis and Rusbult (2001)
-shown that attraction can foster similarity; attitude alignment
Kiesler and Baral (1970)
-Found that men who had a self esteem boost (high IQ scores) engaged in conversation with much more quickly than the men that were given low test scores
Theory of Reciprocity
-based on social exchange theory
-relationships are dependent on people's perceptions of rewards and costs
-self enchancement: helping a partner making self feel better
-self verification:people seek feedback that matches and supports their self-concepts
-Markey et al (2007)
Origins of attraction: SCLA
Festinger et al (1950)- found that friendships in a dormitory tended to form among those who lived near each other
Nahemow and Lawton (1975)-homes for the elderly and on college campuses the distances between rooms predicted friendship and attraction
Schachter (1959)-we compare out feeling and reactions to other so that er can better understand oursleves
Zajonc (1971)-interaction provides us with a sense of connectedness and attachment
Studies on the role of culture in the formation and maintenance of relationships
Moghaddam (1993)-has noted that much of the theory and research on the origins of relationships is a reflection of US culture and not enough cross-cultural research has been carried out
Goodwin (1995)-argues that passionate love is largely a western phenomenon
Gupta and Singh (1992)-found that couples in India who married for love reported diminished feelings of love if they had been married for more than 5 years. Those who reported arranged marriages had higher levels of love
Buss (1994)-mate selection
Simmons et al (1986)
-found that romantic love was valued more in US and in Germany than in Japan
Dion and Dion (1993)
-have noted that in traditional societies marriage as seen as a bond between families and union
Levine et al (1995)
individualistic countries were more likely to rate love as essential to the establishment of a marriage and agreed that the disappearance of love was enough to end a marriage
Bradbury and Fincham (1990)
-marital behavior
Flora and Segrin (2003)
the researchers found that the negative feelings of women towards their partner predicted martial problems
Social Penetration Theory
argues that close relationships are formed by a gradual process of self disclosure
-closeness develops if the participants proceed in a gradual manner from superficial to intimate levels of communication and this is associated with attraction
Self-disclosure
is the sharing of facts about one's life with a loved one, as well as inner thoughts, feelings, and emotions
-leads to self-validation
Collins and Miller (1994)
disclosing something about yourself makes both strangers and friends like you more
Reis (1986)
women also disclose more to other women than men do to other men
Tannen (1990)
women are more likely than men to respond to someone's negative feelings with understanding and acceptance
Overlapping speech
women tend to use more language tags
-alongside the main speaker
Social exchange theory
argues that relationships are maintained through a cost benefit analysis
-a relationship will only endure when it is considered profitable for both parties
-helps to explain ehy some relationships end
Equity theory
perception of equality is what determines whether a relationship will be maintained
Hatfield (1979)
found that those who felt deprived or under-beneficial has extramarital acts soon after marriage
Patterns of accomodation
process of responding to a partner's negative behavior
Constructive accomdation
discussing problems honestly and waiting to improve the situation naturally and forgiving
Destructive accommodations
-silent treatment
-accounting past failures
-physical avoidance
Murray and Holmes (1997)
Found that those with positive illusions about their partners reported less conflict and fewer destructive patterns of conflict resolutions
SImpson (1996)
tested the role of attachment style by how a sensitive topic was discussed by a dating couple
-the results indicate that attachment styles had a clear influence on how couples go about resolving conflict
Fatal Attraction theory
the same trait that initially caused attraction ultimately leads to the dissolutionof the relationship
Gray and SIlver (1990)
Women terminate relationships more often than men
Duck (1988)
Marriages in which the partners are younger than average tend to be unstable
Pringle (1986)
There is a relationship between divorce and early parenthood. The arrival of a baby brings added financial problems and takes time away from a young couple who might not have established a stable, intimate relationship
Duck (1992)
marriages between couples from lower economic groups and lower educational level tend to be more unstable -Marriages tend to be more unstable between people who had divorced parents or who had a greater number of sexual partners before marriage
Speecher (1999)
frustration outweighed the positive feelings of love or the partner
Aggression
any sequence of behavior in which the goal is to dominate or harm another individuals
Violence
aggressive act in which the actor or perpetrator abuses individuals directly or indirectly
low base-rate behavior
difficult to observe and easy to miss violence
Jane Goodall
Chimpanzee in Gombe, Tanzanua
Testosterone
male hormone made to give evolutionary advantage implicated in both sexual arousal and aggression
Cultivation theory
argues that media violence gives children a perception of a world more holistic than it is in reality
egotism
inflated sense of own's self
narcissism
obsession with one's self
narcissist
personality type who cares passionately about being superior to others
deindividuation theory
the psychological state of deindividuation is aroused when individuals join crowds
self-categorization theory
suggest that people look for others in the group with whom they can identify
downward comparison
comparing yourself with people who are worse off