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Chapter 3: Cell Structure and Function (biology)
Terms in this set (37)
The endoplasmic _______ is a network of membranes originating at the nuclear envelope and winding through the cell.
Select all of the following that are present in BOTH prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
cytoplasm, DNA, RNA, ribosomes
Select all the roles that membranes play in cells.
break down and destroy toxic chemicals
-enclose organelles in eukaryotic cells
-separate cytoplasm and cell's surroundings
-receive and respond to extend stimuli
enclose organelles in eukaryotic, separate cytoplasm and cell's surroundings, receive and respond to external stimuli
What plant cell organelle can occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and can exert turgor pressure against the cell membrane when it acquires water?
The organelle that is the site of photosynthesis in plant cells is the ________, which is a type pf plastid.
The nucleolus is a dense spot in the nucleus where components of ______ are assembled.
_______ are organelles that originate in the ER and contain enzymes that dispose of toxic substances.
What are the three components of the cell theory devised in the mid-1800s?
-all the cells originate from preexisting cells
-the cell is the fundamental unit of all life
-all organisms are made of one or more cells
-all cells can arise from spontaneous generation
-all cells have nuclei
all the cells originate from preexisting cells, the cell is the fundamental unit of all life, all organisms are made of one or more cells
Lipids, detoxifying enzymes, and membrane components are produced and stored in the ______ endoplasmic reticulum
All cells are surrounded by cell membranes, also called plasma membranes, that separate the cytoplasm from the
Select all of the cell parts that are involved in the endomembrane system.
nuclear envelope, gogli apparatus, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum
The ______ is a series of flattened sac which sorts and packages materials into vesicles to be sent to the cell membrane.
The digestive _______ that end up inside lysosomes are made in the ER, and then the Golgi apparatus packages them into vesicles, forming lysosomes.
The _______ theory states that all life is composed of one or more cells, which are the fundamental units of all life.
In eukaryotic cells, the DNA that codes for the cell's proteins is stored in a membrane bounded organelle called the
Select of the following that are found in the cytoplasm, outside the nuclear membrane.
-ions and enzymes
organelles, cytoskeleton, ions and enzymes
A(n) ______ is the smallest and most basic unit of life and can function as one or many working together.
Select all of the following that are able to pass freely through the phospholipid bilayer.
-small nonpolar molecules
-ions and polar molecules
-O2 and CO2
small nonpolar molecules, O2 and CO2, lipids
Whether bacterium or blue whale, every organism is made of
Proteins to be secreted outside the cell are formed at ribosomes on the surface of the ______ endoplasmic reticulum.
Membranous spheres that transport materials inside the cells as part of the endomembrane system are called
What is the function of a ribosome?
-to manufacture RNA
-to enclose materials to be exported from the cell
-to manufacture DNA
-to manufacture proteins
to manufacture proteins
Biological membranes are selectively ______, meaning they only allow specific types of molecules to pass into or out of the cell.
Select all of the following that may be components of cell membranes
steroids, proteins, phospholipids
Which of the following are correct concerning plant organelles called plastids? select all that apply.
-they contain their own DNA and ribosomes
-they contain enzymes that detoxify harmful substances
-some assemble and store starch
-some, such as chloroplasts, synthesize pigments
they contain their own DNA and ribosomes, some assemble and store starch, some such as chloroplasts synthesize pigments
______ proteins are embedded in the cell membrane and act as passageways for water soluble materials into or out of the cell.
Select all the organelles that are thought to have arisen by the endosymbiosis.
What organelle protects all eukaryotic cells from toxic substances or toxic by products of chemical reactions?
The internal membranes of the several organelles are interconnected and form the ______ system of eukaryotic cell.
______ are organelles that originate in the ER and contain enzymes that dispose of toxic substances.
What type of membrane protein speeds up chemical reactions?
The cell membrane can be described as a(n) ______ mosaic because of the many diverse components can move freely within the cell membrane.
The smallest objects that the unaided human eye contact can see are about ______ in size.
The ______ found within the nuclear envelope are lined with specialized proteins that allow the transport of substances into and out of the nucleus.
_____ proteins bind into molecules and ions of the outside of the cell, triggering a reaction on the inside of the cell.
Proteins on the surfaces of cell membranes which enable cells to stick to other cells are called _______ proteins.
What type of microscope passes light through a transparent or thinly sliced specimen to generate true-color views of cells?
What part of a phospholipid bilayer is hydrophilic and polar?
Why does ATP hydrolysis release so much free energy?
How many steps are in the krebs cycle
During the cell cycle, when is DNA duplication
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