Government Ch1-4 test Thicks
Terms in this set (62)
The institution through which a country or society makes and enforces policy.
The world's basic political unit with a defined territory, organized under a government and having the authority to make and enforce the law.
Four Characteristics of Nation States
A. Territory-Every state must have land, with known and recognized borders.
B.Population-Every state must be inhabited; it must have a population (people).
C. Sovereignty-The state has absolute power within its territory. It can decide its own policies.
D. Government-The state makes and enforces its policies through a government.
Origins Of Government Theories
A. Evolutionary Theory: The state developed out of the early primitive family in which one person was the head.
B. Force Theory: When a person or a group of people take control of an area, such as a state, and make everyone in that area follow their rules and beliefs.
C. Divine Right Theory: That kings and queens have a God-given right to rule and that rebellion against them is a sin.
D. Social Contract theory: The view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live.
A system of government in which power is held by a single central agency
A system of government in which in powers are divided between central and regional authorities.
A system based on a loose alliance of independent states.
a joining of several different groups for a common purpose
Albany Plan of Union:
Benjamin Franklin's proposal that the 13 colonies form a congress to raise armed forces, regulate trade, and deal jointly with Native Americans
the principle that government exists only with the consent of the governed
were directly controlled by the king.
were run by a proprietor chosen by the king.
were run mainly by elected legislatures and were the most independent.
the idea that government is restricted in what it may do and that every individual has certain rights that government cannot remove
the idea that government should both serve and be guided by the will of the people
This Great Charter signed in 1215 that limited the powers of the English king and guaranteed certain fundamental rights
Petition of Right:
a document signed in 1628 that required the English king to obey the law of the land and increased the influence of Parliament
English Bill of Rights:
a document signed in 1689 that required free elections and guaranteed many basic rights, such as due process and trial by jury, to all English citizens
a written grant of authority from the king
having two houses, as in a two-house legislature
the name given to colonies organized and governed according to the will of a proprietor, a person granted land and authority by the king
having only one house, as in a one house legislature
an agreement to divide Congress into two houses, one with representation based on state population and one with equal representation for all states
an agreement to count each slave as three fifths of a person when determining state population
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise:
an agreement forbidding Congress from taxing state exports or interfering with the slave trade for at least 20 years
Proposed a strong executive, a national judiciary, and a strong two-house legislature in which the lower house would be chosen by the people and the upper house would be chosen by the lower houses. This plan favored the large, more populated states.
New Jersey Plan:
proposed a weak executive of more than one person elected by the Congress, a national judiciary with limited powers, and a one house legislature, with one vote for each state. This plan favored the small states
The First Continental Congress:
Sent a Declaration of Rights to King George that protested Britain's colonial policies. Urged colonists to boycott trade with England until hated laws were repealed.
The Constitution is "the supreme law of the land" -
the highest form of law in the United States.
sets out the basic principles upon which government in the United States was built.
Popular Sovereignty: All political power resides in the people's -
government can only govern with the consent of the governed.
*Government must obey the law - it must follow the principle of "constitutionalism": government must be conducted according to constitutional principles.
The legislative branch is in charge of making laws. It is made up of the Congress and several Government agencies. Makes laws
The executive branch is headed by the president. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Executes, or carries out, laws
The Judicial branch of government is made up of the court system. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land. It was established by the Constitution. Interprets laws and judges
Checks and Balances-
Each of the 3 branches of government has a check on the other 2 branches. This balances power between the 3, ensuring that none of the branches seizes control.
Power is shared by the state and federal government. The division of power among a central government and several regional governments - the powers held by government are distributed on a territorial basis.
The Constitution is separated into:
"Preamble": a short introduction. The Preamble begins with the phrase "We the people..."
"Articles": seven numbered sections that outline American government. There are seven Articles in the Constitution identified by the Roman numerals I - 7.
"Amendments": 27 additions to the document.
Informal amendment- is the process by which over time many changes have been made in the Constitution which have not involved any changes in its written word.
"Bill of Rights"- The first 10 amendments to the Constitution.
The division of government power, as expressed in the United States Constitution between National Government and State.
A. The federal government deals only with national issues (defense, foreign policy, commerce, mail)
B. The state governments deal with local matters (economic regulation, criminal law, services)
Federalism has evolved over the course of American history. At different points in time, the balance and boundaries between the national government and state government have changed substantially.
There are three distinct periods in the evolution of federalism:
Dual Federalism (1789 - 1945)
Cooperative Federalism (1945-1969)New Federalism (1969 - Present)
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. Each level government is meant to be kept separate, like the layers of a sheet cake. Dominated in the first 100 years of the republic. Dual federalism allowed states to experiment with policies.
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. It was popularized during FDR's administration and continued through the 1960s. Each level of government is distinct, but overlapping, like the elements of a marble cake.
was advocated by presidents Nixon, Reagan, and George H.W. Bush, emphasizing to shrink the size of the national government and hand more power back to the states. Aim to give more powers to the state governments.
Powers that belong only to the federal government. (coin money, declare war) Article I
Powers that are reserved to the states. (regulate marriage/divorce, public education, running elections, Decide drinking age ) Tenth Amendment
Powers that the federal government and the state governments exercise at the same time. (taxation, Define crimes and set punishments )
DIVISION OF POWERS -
Assigns certain powers to the National Government and certain powers to the States. (Dual system of government)
those delegated powers of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers and set out in the Constitution
any power which is acquired by the national government naturally because the government is a sovereign state
Gives Congress the right to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers
Delegated to the National Government spelled out, expressly, in the Constitution. (Collect taxes, Coin money, Raise/maintain armed forces, Declare war)
Full Faith and Credit:
The Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Constitution ensures that States recognize the laws, documents, and court proceedings of the other states.
The legal process in which an alleged criminal is returned to the state or country where the crime was committed.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819):
In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) the Supreme Court ruled that Congress had implied powers under the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution to create the Second Bank of the United States and that the state of Maryland lacked the power to tax the Bank.
The Civil War:
is the central event in America's historical consciousness. While the Revolution of 1776-1783 created the United States, the Civil War of 1861-1865 determined what kind of nation it would be. The war resolved two fundamental questions left unresolved by the revolution: whether the United States was to be a dissolvable confederation of sovereign states or an indivisible nation with a sovereign national government; and whether this nation, born of a declaration that all men were created with an equal right to liberty, would continue to exist as the largest slaveholding country in the world.In the end, the Civil war put the nation before the states. It established the supremacy of the national government in the American federal system
gives Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.
Are grants of federal money or other resources to the States and/or their cities, counties, and other local units.
Was used between 1972 and 1987, gave an annual share of federal tax revenues to the States and their local governments.
Money given for a specific purpose that comes with restrictions concerning how the money should be spent (strings attached).
Money given for a fairly broad purpose with few strings attached.
Are demands the federal government makes in order for a state to receive money.