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Swope, Pennsbury

Da vinci

Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect


the revival of learning and culture


a political system governed by a few people


Lords of Italian cities. As the Italian communes of the 13th century became increasingly fractiious, regional nobles saw this friction as politically advantageous and offered to become the lords of the cities. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.


They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.


italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government and set up republics. These republics were short-lived because the popolo did not gain support of other classes


The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.


the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason


The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.


Converted Jews in Spain. They were one of the targets of the Inquisition, in 1492, the Jews were exiled and their properties were seized.


a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence


a desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters


Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.443)


Practicing deceit or cunning; favoring expediency over moral principle

Court of the Star Chamber

Created by Henry VII who sent lords there when they refused to give up thier private armies (Livery and Maintinance). This asserted overall authority over the lords.

Habsburg-Valois wars

The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg-Valois Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.


the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)

vanishing point

the appearance of a point on the horizon at which parallel lines converge


the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer

urban nobility

new social class that resulted in the marriage of rural nobility and merchant aristocrats


someone who supports or champions something


a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages

princely courts

where despots or oligarchs lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts

Paragmatic Sanction of Bourges

issued by King Charles VII of France, on July 7, 1438, required a General Church Council, with authority superior to that of the pope, to be held every ten years, required election rather than appointment to ecclesiastical offices, prohibited the pope from bestowing, and profiting from, benefices, and limited appeals to Rome.

new Christians

Who: those who converted from Judaism in Spain What: the people who converted were also called conversos When: 1391 Where: Spain Significance: These New Christians were people who survived the attacks in Seville and now are well educated and successful. They held the royal secretary ship, controlled the royal treasury and composed a third of the royal council.


has its own government and wasn't part of any larger unit

The Courtier

by Baldassare Castiglione. They taught how to become a "Renaissance man"; A young man, said Castiglione, should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Upper-class women also should know the classics and be charming.

The Prince

Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"


literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348; both a stringing social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior


a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island


a severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)


A giant, father of pantegreul. Gargantua meets absurd characters, they have hilarious discussions, that are very important for they describe topics about religion and politics. Written by Francois Rabelais (1532-1552


he is Gargantua's son, in the book "Gargantual and Pantergreul" written by Francois Rabelais


(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.

de medicis

Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.


This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling


an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)


(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.

"new monarchs"

The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.

justices of the peace

English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government.

royal council

National governing council of England under Henry VII, demonstrated the monarchy's distrust of nobility by excluding it.

Christian humanism

a movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church


convinced Florentines that Medicis were weakening Florence and it worked. He took control for next 4 years and wanted it to be a theocracy but it didn't work. PRaised France as a godsend. Florentines executed him.

printing press

invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects

Cesare Borgia

A political leader, son of Pope Alexander VI, a member of the Spanish Borgia family, he had ambitions of uniting all of Italy under his control. His father tried to exploit his office for the benefit of his relatives.

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