Lords of Italian cities. As the Italian communes of the 13th century became increasingly fractiious, regional nobles saw this friction as politically advantageous and offered to become the lords of the cities. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.
They were sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles.
italian underclass; a new force that disenfranchised and heavily taxed the people bitterly for being excluded from holding power. They used armed force and violence to take over the government and set up republics. These republics were short-lived because the popolo did not gain support of other classes
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.
Converted Jews in Spain. They were one of the targets of the Inquisition, in 1492, the Jews were exiled and their properties were seized.
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
a desire for wealth and material possessions with little interest in ethical or spiritual matters
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.443)
Court of the Star Chamber
Created by Henry VII who sent lords there when they refused to give up thier private armies (Livery and Maintinance). This asserted overall authority over the lords.
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg-Valois Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
new social class that resulted in the marriage of rural nobility and merchant aristocrats
where despots or oligarchs lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts
Paragmatic Sanction of Bourges
issued by King Charles VII of France, on July 7, 1438, required a General Church Council, with authority superior to that of the pope, to be held every ten years, required election rather than appointment to ecclesiastical offices, prohibited the pope from bestowing, and profiting from, benefices, and limited appeals to Rome.
Who: those who converted from Judaism in Spain What: the people who converted were also called conversos When: 1391 Where: Spain Significance: These New Christians were people who survived the attacks in Seville and now are well educated and successful. They held the royal secretary ship, controlled the royal treasury and composed a third of the royal council.
by Baldassare Castiglione. They taught how to become a "Renaissance man"; A young man, said Castiglione, should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Upper-class women also should know the classics and be charming.
Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"
literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348; both a stringing social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior
A giant, father of pantegreul. Gargantua meets absurd characters, they have hilarious discussions, that are very important for they describe topics about religion and politics. Written by Francois Rabelais (1532-1552
he is Gargantua's son, in the book "Gargantual and Pantergreul" written by Francois Rabelais
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
justices of the peace
English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government.
National governing council of England under Henry VII, demonstrated the monarchy's distrust of nobility by excluding it.
a movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church
convinced Florentines that Medicis were weakening Florence and it worked. He took control for next 4 years and wanted it to be a theocracy but it didn't work. PRaised France as a godsend. Florentines executed him.
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects