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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 20 Lymphatic System
Terms in this set (34)
(1) immune system cells found in lymphoid tissue (2) supporting cells that form lymphoid tissue structures
cells of the adaptive immune system; mature into one of two main types
Can circulate through the open spaces and cycle between the lymphatic system and the circulatory system
T lympcytes: manage immune response , and some also attack and destory infected cells
B lymphocytes: produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies
* Live on the fibers of the reticular connective tissue.
* Phagocytizes foreign substances and help activate T cells.
these cells capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes, also activate T sells
these cells produce reticular fibers called stroma, internal skeleton, in lymphoid organs.
largely composed of a loose reticular connective tissue
Main functions of lymphoid tissue
-houses and provides proliferation sites for lymphocytes
-offers surveilance vantage points for lymphocytes and macrophages as they filter through lymph
Structural basis of immune system.
Ex. Lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and others.
Primary lymphoid orgams
areas where T and B cells mature - red bone marrow and thymus
Secondary lymphoid organs
areas where mature lymphocytes first encounter their antigen and become activated.
T and B cells involved with bone marrow
T and B cells originate in bone marrow, but only B cells matures there, T cells mature in the thymus
Most important secondary lymphoid organ of the body.
Cluster along the lymphatic vessels.
What are the two main functions of the lymph nodes
1. cleansing the lymph with macrophages
2. Immune system activation: exposes B and T cells to pathogens
a blood-rich organ about size of fist, located in left side of abdominal cavity, just below the stomach
Functions of the spleen
- site of lynmphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response
- cleanses blood of aged blood cells and platelets; macrohages remove debris
-stores blood platetes and monocytes
-may be site of fetal erythrocyte production
site where immune function occurs. it contains mostly lymphocytes on reticular fibers. they are found around central arteries
site where old blood cells and blood borne pathogens are destroyed
Mucosa. Associated. Lymphoid. Tissues.
Located in mucus membranes and guard the entryway of the body to help prevent the never ending pathogens that seek into our bodies.
Ex. Tonsils, Appendix and Peyer's Patches
-Clusters of lymphoid follicles in wall of distal portion of small intestine.
Tries to trap bacteria
offshoot of first part of large intestine.
contains a large number of lymphoid follicles.
Functions of Appendix
1. destroy bacteria, preventing them from breaching intestinal wall
2. generate "memory" lymphocytes
* Form a ring around the entrance to the pharynx
* Gather and remove pathogens from food or inhaled air
* Form tonsillar crypts to trap bacteria and particulates
-Invites infection, produces a variety of immune memory cells-
Pathway of lymph
Collecting vessels with valves
Structure of lymph nodes
Surrounds lymph nodes
Splits lymph nodes into cortex and medulla
Afferent Lymphatic Vessels
Bring fluid in (More)
Drain fluid out (Less)
B and T cells exposed to pathogens
RIGHT: Right Upper limb, right side of head and thorax.
LEFT: The rest of the body
* Interweave with cardiovascular capillaries.
* Accumulating fluid increases pressure in the area forcing fluid into lymphatic vessels.
* Lymph fluid passes through a series of vessels and nodes on the way back to circulation.
*Travel in 1 direction; towards the heart.
* As interstitial pressure raises above pressure in a lymph vessel it force MINIVALVLES in the lymphatic capillary to open.
* Fluid and proteins are forces into the vessel by pressure differences.
* In times of inflammation, larger things (Like pathogen) are forced into the lymph vessels.
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
* From lymphatic vessels, lymph flows through larger channels collecting.
* Lymphatic vessels have the same 3 tunics as veins, but much thinner.
* Largest collecting vessels unite from lymphatic trunks.
* Trunks merge to form 2 large ducts.
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