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Terms in this set (67)
The heart is located
within the mediastinum, or the medial cavity of the thorax
The heart is how big
about 5" in length (12-14cm)
Double walled (fibrous and serous)
Tough fibrous tissue (fibrous pericardium)
Protects the heart
Anchors it to surrounding structures
Prevents over-filling with blood
Made of 2 layers= parietal (outside) and visceral (inside).
Visceral pericardium = epicardium
Thin and slippery
Fluid is between the two layers and reduces friction for heart movements
Inflammation of the pericardium
pericardial friction rub
Fluid accumulates and limits the heart expansion when pumping blood.
Heart Plug or Cardiac Tamponade
Mainly cardiac muscle with fibrous bundles
Part of the heart that contracts with each heart beat
Mainly squamous epithelium which lines all of the chambers of the heart.
Covers the valves
carry blood away from heart
carry blood to the heart
Exterior Chambers and Vessels of the heart
1. Right Atrium/auricles
2. Left Atrium/auricles
3. Right Ventricle
4. Left Ventricle
5. Superior Vena Cava
6. Inferior Vena Cava
8. Pulmonary Trunk
9. Left Pulmonary Artery
10. Right Pulmonary Artery
11. Right Pulmonary Veins
12. Left Pulmonary Veins
13. Coronary Circulation
Blood to the heart
14. Apex of Heart
15. Ligamentum arteriosum
interior Chambers and Vessels of the heart
1. Sinoatrial Node (SA) pacemaker
2. Atrioventricular Node (AV)
3. Atrioventricular Bundle/Bundle of His
4. Bundle Branches
5. Purkinje Fibers
6. Pulmonary Valve
7. Aortic Valve
8. Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve
9. Tricuspid Valve
remnant of the ducts arteriosus
Left coronary artery
runs toward the left side of the heart and divides into Anterior interventricular artery and Circumflex artery
Anterior interventricular artery
runs to the apex and supplies the anterior walls of both ventricles.
supplies the left atrium and the posterior walls of the left ventricle
Right coronary artery
courses the right side of the heart and divides into Marginal artery and Posterior interventricular artery
lateral right side of the heart
Posterior interventricular artery
runs to the apex and supplies the posterior ventricular walls
receives blood from the cardiac veins and Returns blood to the right ventricle
Blockage to the vessels
SL open and AV close
SL close and AV open
Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)
Separate atria from the ventricles
Tricuspid and Bicuspid (mitral)
Attached to chordae tendineae to hold valves in place when the ventricles contract.
Chordae attached to papillary muscles
Separate the ventricles from the arteries
Flaps are forced open when the ventricles contract.
Back pressure forces the valves closed
*When valves leak or harden, new valves must be inserted.
Mitral valve prolapse and heart murmur
This cardiac muscle is "self-excitable".
They can start their own depolarization
Cardiac muscle contractions
move from cell to cell to create a wave of contraction
Skeletal muscle contracts
all at once
allow message to be sent between cells
has a long refactory period
has a much shorter refactory period
what muscle doesn't fatigue
Mitochondria account for what percent of cardiac muscle cell
Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria to produce
ATP, but this also requires more oxygen.
SA Node in the right atrium contracts
first and the fastest. 75x/min
the SA node is also called the
SA node Sends electrical impulse to the
AV node slows the electrical impulse and passes it to the
Atrioventricular bundles (Bundle of His)
AV bundles takes the impulse to the
right and left Purkinje fibers at the apex of the heart and up the outer walls of the ventricles.
Ventricles start to contract first at the apex and the contraction moves toward
Defects in the nerve conduction can cause
arrhythmias for fibrillation
not effective at moving blood through the heart
ECG or EKG (Electrocardiogram)
Measurement of electrical waves generated by the heart.
Depolarization of the SA node and the atria
Lasts .08 second
Depolarization of ventricles
Repolarization of atria
Lasts .08 seconds
Lasts .16 sec
Made by closure of valves
Lub -dub- pause -lub - dub - pause
AV valves close
SL valves close
heard when abnormal patterns occur
Where can we listen to different valves of the heart?
Aortic Valve sounds are hears in the second intercostal space at right sternum margin
Pulmonary sounds are heard in the second intercostal space at left sternal margin
Mitral valve sounds are heard over heart apex in fifth intercostal space in line with middle clavical
tricuspid valve sounds are heard at right sternal margin of the fifth intercostal space
The heart goes through cycles of filling with blood and contracting to remove blood.
Contraction part of the cycle
The relaxation part of the cycle
Doesn't have enough blood calcium
Occurs when low calcium levels depress the heart beat
Low or high levels of both calcium and potassium cause many heart problems
Parathyroid calcitonin maintains calcium
High levels of Potassium increase the excitation and contraction of the heart
Abnormally fast heart rate
More than 100 beats per min.
Abnormally slow heart rate
Slower than 60 per min. (Exception with fitness levels)
Congestive Heart Failure
Cardiac output of blood is too low to meet the tissues demands.
Fatty build-up in arteries that reduces the diameter of the vessel.
Less blood is delivered to tissues.
Plaque formation can dislodge and clog smaller vessels.
High Blood Pressure
90 or higher for diastolic
140 or higher for systolic
Causes are not well understood
Increases risk for heart disease and stroke.
Ventricles stretch and become floppy and blood isn't pumped forcefully enough
Cause is usually unknown, but drugs and alcohol may cause it.
Left side of the heart fails and can't pump blood into systemic circulation.
Blood returns from the lungs, but is not pumped out.
Lungs fill with fluid and if tx is not administed, the patient suffocates
Right side of the heart fails.
Not pumping blood to lungs.
Incoming blood pools in the heart and builds up in the tissues.
Feet, ankles and fingers
Heart Attack Signs (men)
1st sign in 2/3 of men is sudden death
Arm weakness or pain
Shortness of breath
Heart Attack Signs (women)
1st symptom is angina = 56%
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